New Construction / International / 2013 /
04 - Transport
Information correct as of 7thAugust 2020. Please see kb.breeam.com for the latest compliance information.
Amenities – Access to cash - KBCN0359
An ATM inside a building would be acceptable provided that its opening hours are similar to those of the assessed building, regardless of whether there is a nominal charge for the service. Cash-back from the till in a retail outlet is not compliant.
Access to cash should be available to the building users at all relevant times of the day. This should not require a prior purchase of goods and should provide access to other services, such as checking account balances.
Amenities – Assessed building is one of the listed amenities - KBCN0264
Where the assessed building is itself included in the list of amenities, that particular amenity criterion can be deemed to be met, e.g. a supermarket development itself meets the proximity to food outlet required for a Retail type building.
Amenities – Pharmacy within hospital - KBCN0321
A publicly accessible pharmacy would typically be required in order to constitute a suitable amenity. If it can be confirmed that an internal pharmacy (in Northern Ireland this may also include an onsite controlled medical dispensary) will provide prescribed medicines for building users, this is acceptable.
Amenities – Sandwich van as a food outlet - KBCN0557
A food truck/ mobile catering service would not be sufficient to meet the criteria for this issue.
The aim of this Issue is to assess the location of the built asset relative to amenities.
Amenities – Vending machine as a food outlet - KBCN0653
A vending machine can be considered as a food outlet if a range of items, as can be reasonably expected, are for sale to meet the needs of the building users and it is confirmed to be a permanent fixture.
Car sharing - KBCN0878
This measure will generally be unavailable to speculative projects.
To fully implement the car sharing option, the building occupants need to be known and signed up to a car sharing scheme in-line with the criteria.
Co-working space as an alternative to a home office - KBCN1396
Co-working facilities may be accepted as an alternative to conventional home-working space, provided that:
This seeks to recognise the emergence of co-working facilities as alternative places of work.
- The space is conveniently located and adequately sized for all users and must provide one compliant work space for each residential unit, in line with the requirements for an individual home office.
- Each individual working space is compliant with Criteria 2a, 2c and 2d. However, in recognition of the various technological advances which have taken place, Criterion 2b may now be considered as met, where it can be demonstrated that the intent of the requirement for connectivity has been fulfilled by other means.
Community transport schemes in rural areas - KBCN00013
In rural areas, where scheduled public services are insufficient to gain credits via the calculation of the Accessibility Index, community transport schemes, including 'on-demand services', can be used to achieve the 'dedicated bus service' option. In such cases evidence must be provided to demonstrate:
- It serves a rural area
- It is available to all potential users
- The service is established at the time of the assessment being submitted
- The service is of an appropriate scale for the community it serves
Content reworded to highlight the availability of the on-demand service to all potential users. 24/04/2017
Cycle spaces – Minimum and maximum requirements - KBCN0637
These remain applicable where the 50% reduction allowed for building locations with a high level of public transport accessibility is in effect.
This means that, for instance, a large retail will still need to provide at least ten customer cycle storage spaces and could meet compliance with a maximum of fifty.
18.05.2017 Previous KBCN on large retail adapted to include any minimum requirement for cycle storage spaces.
Cycle spaces – Compliant types of storage - KBCN0257
Due to the number of different types of cycle storage facility available and the variation in site conditions, BREEAM New Construction is less prescriptive about the dimensions and type of cycle parking which can be used to demonstrate compliance. The Assessor is expected to exercise their professional judgement to determine whether the cycle parking spaces meet the aims of the Issue and the requirements listed in the compliance notes.
BREEAM is used to certify buildings, not products. Cycle parking systems cannot, therefore, be considered inherently 'BREEAM compliant'. These must be assessed in context with reference to their location and the intended user profile.
Cycle spaces – Folding bicycles and scooters - KBCN00024
The provision of cycle storage that is only suitable for folding bicycles or scooters is not compliant.
Providing reduced storage space for folding bicycles or scooters in place of compliant cycle storage may limit future travel options
14 03 2018 Wording clarified and reference to scooters included.
Cycle spaces – Prominent location - KBCN00053
The requirement to provide cycle storage facilities in a prominent location on site, within view of building users, is intended to encourage use through advertising their presence to building users. Providing these facilities inside the assessed building, such as in the basement, may be compliant so long as there is prominent signage to indicate their location to all building users.
Cycle spaces – Provision for extensions - KBCN0707
When assessing an extension to a building, partial refurbishment or a stand-alone building, which extends an existing facility to be occupied by the same building users (such as a classroom block in an existing school), a site-wide approach should be used to determine the number of new, compliant cycle spaces required.
In such instances a stand-alone approach cannot generally ensure that the new cycle spaces for the assessed extension would be dedicated and available to the occupants of the assessed extension, refurbishment or building. This can only be used where it can be demonstrated that the use of the new cycle storage can be effectively restricted to only those using the assessed extension, either by effective positioning and or management.
Cycle spaces – Provision for regular, large visitor numbers - KBCN0546
Where there are large numbers of visitors on a regular basis, provision of cycle storage for visitors should be based on the maximum number at any given time.
This is to ensure that at peak times enough cycle storage is provided.
Cycle spaces – Similar buildings assessments - KBCN0570
Where cycle storage and/or facilities are provided for individual units, a site-wide approach cannot be used to include all units. If, however, these are a shared facility, provided in a suitably-located communal area, this may be acceptable.
When assessing using the 'similar buildings' approach, each of the similar buildings has to be assessed separately and credits have to be awarded, based on the worst performing building.
14 03 2018 Clarified to account for suitable shared facilities
Cycle spaces – Timing of installation in phased projects - KBCN00015
Where cycle storage cannot be installed at construction stage, due to phasing and / or pending demolition works, compliance may still be demonstrated provided:
- Clarification and justification is given for why the storage is not currently available.
- A written contractual agreement is in place to provide BREEAM compliant storage within a clear timescale.
- Alternative storage is provided in the meantime that allow bikes to be easily stored and removed, with the ability to be locked securely against a fixed structure.
The methodology above applies to cycle storage only, and cannot be applied to provision of cyclist facilities (such as showers and lockers) which must be assessed as normal.
This is to allow flexibility within the project programme for the installation of the final, permanent BREEAM-compliant cycle storage whilst still ensuring adequate cycle storage is available during the construction phase.
Cycle spaces and facilities – Rounding calculations - KBCN0445
The calculation for the required cycle spaces and facilities must always be rounded up. If the calculation works out as 5.3 cycle spaces, 6 cycle spaces must be provided.
To determine the requirements for developments with multiple types of building user, calculate the requirement for each user group separately (rounding up to the determine the number of spaces) and then add the number of cycle spaces for each user group together.
04/10/2018 Wording amended to clarify the correct calculation method for developments with multiple user groups.
Cycle Storage – Electric cycle charging stations - KBCN1238
Electric charging stations can be considered as compliant, provided they also meet the criteria for cycle storage spaces.
However, where these are dedicated spaces, (ie they are not available for non-electric cycles), these should not constitute more than 10% of the provision required for compliance.
Cycle storage – new spaces in the public domain - KBCN1410
Where it is not possible to locate short-term visitor/customer cycle storage spaces within the assessment boundary, these may be provided in a suitable and convenient location within the public realm.
The assessor must be satisfied that there is legal agreement and a long-term commitment to the provision of the spaces.
All relevant criteria must be met, however, where justified, the requirement for overhead covering can be waived.
BREEAM accepts that for cycle storage spaces within the public realm, there may be restrictions on the ability to provide overhead covering.
Cycle storage accessible through staircase - KBCN0639
While BRE does not rule out the possibility for cycle storage to be accessed via a staircase, health and safety considerations must be made, especially with regards to wet, icy and dark conditions.
On reflection of the above, the assessor should be satisfied that the cycle storage location is easily accessible.
Cyclists’ facilities – Adequately sized lockers - KBCN0961
The requirement for adequately sized lockers is so that cyclists have a dedicated space to store their cycling equipment and clothes. It is not compliant for the space requirement to be met by providing two or more inadequately-sized lockers for each cyclist.
Requiring cyclists to separate their equipment into different lockers/storage spaces could create a barrier to uptake of commuting by bicycle.
Cyclists’ facilities – Combining different facilities - KBCN0683
Cyclists' facilities can be combined, provided that all relevant compliance requirements are met. For example, compliant showers can be combined with compliant lockers in one room, subject to the principle below.
For combined facilities to count as multiple facilities, they must be capable of being used independently of each other at the same time with reference to any space requirements, access, gender and privacy issues.
Cyclists’ facilities – Matching additional cycle spaces - KBCN00093
Where more than the minimum number of compliant cycle spaces required for BREEAM compliance is provided, it is not necessary to also provide more than the minimum number of showers/lockers/changing facilities.
Cyclists’ facilities – Provision of only one shower - KBCN0566
Where only one shower is provided, this needs to cater for users of both genders.
For a changing facility to count as an additional amenity, it must be capable of being used independently of any showers, otherwise it could not be considered as two facilities.
A shower which is a mixed gender facility must be capable of being used privately. As such, it requires adequate private changing space associated with it.
Amended to provide further clarification and to add the general principle.
Cyclists’ facilities – Shower provision for male and female users - KBCN0536
Where a deviation from the guidance for a 50:50 split can be fully justified, (for example, based on actual occupancy data from a similar development of the same building type) this can be deemed as compliant by the assessor.
If such justification cannot be provided but design teams wish to provide a flexible arrangement for showers to suit the anticipated building occupancy, providing unisex showers accessible to all building users would be acceptable.
Cyclists’ facilities – Within toilet facilities - KBCN00050
To comply with the criteria for cyclist facilities, showers should not obstruct the use of other facilities. Where a shower is located in a room with a WC, this cannot be considered compliant, unless it can be unequivocally demonstrated that the WC is provided over-and-above the requirements of relevant standards or regulations for general and disabled WCs.
To ensure that there is no conflict between the use of general or disabled WCs and the use of cyclist facilities.
25.10.18 KBCN reworded to improve clarity.
Demand-based bus services in AI calculation - KBCN1338
Demand-based bus services operated by public transport providers can be included in the calculation of the Accessibility Index. The project team will need to determine an average number of stops per hour to allow input into the AI tool.
Education – Boarding schools - KBCN00089
The number of cycle spaces and facilities should be calculated based on the number of day pupils and boarders and these should be available to pupils and staff as appropriate.
For boarders, the cycle storage and cyclists' facilities requirement may depend upon a number of factors, such as the age of the pupils/students, distance of the residential accommodation from the school buildings and the school’s policy on cycling. Therefore, the assessor is required to calculate the appropriate number of cycle storage spaces and facilities for pupils and staff based on the relevant criteria.
Calculations, justification and supporting evidence should be provided in the assessment report.
14 03 2018 - Heading and wording clarified and amended to remove requirement for assessors to submit a technical query prior to certification.
Electric recharging stations availability - KBCN1128
This option requires the number of electric vehicle recharging stations (EVCS) to be based on a percentage of the total car parking for the building.
To meet compliance, the recharging stations must be available to all building users, customers and visitors.
Where on-site parking is limited to special user-groups, such as disabled, car share, car pool or visitors only, compliance can be met where the required percentage of EVCS is provided for those users, with a minimum of one EVCS, per user-group provided for on site.
02 06 2020 updated to clarify how this applies where the only on-site car parking is for special user groups.
Electric vehicle charging stations - KBCN0684
As per the 'Alternative transport measures' criteria, the percentage requirement for electric charging stations should be based on the total car parking capacity for the building.
Where the assessment covers only part of a building or development this must be based on the total car parking capacity unless the parking for the assessed development is clearly segregated and available only for the use of its building users.
23 03 17 Reference to car sharing spaces removed. See also KBCN0282
Electric vehicle charging stations – shell & core assessments - KBCN1247
For shell & core and partially-fitted residential developments, compliance can be demonstrated by installing all the necessary infrastructure, (i.e. capacity in the connection to the local electricity distribution network and distribution board, as well as sub-surface ductwork to receive cabling to parking spaces), to enable the simple installation and activation of charging points at a future date.
15/11/2019 Incorrect reference to pre-installation of 'cabling' removed.
Exemplary level criteria – option 5 - KBCN0529
In order to use option 5 to achieve the Exemplary level credit, two credits must be achieved in this option.
Facilities provision for public bicycle sharing systems - KBCN0276
Where a public bicycle sharing system is being used to account for up to 50% of cycle spaces provided, the total number of cycle spaces, including those provided by the bicycle sharing system, should be the basis on which the compliant cyclist facilities are provided.
This is because people using public cycle spaces will still need the use of cyclist facilities such as showers and lockers
13.08.2018 KBCN applied to the BREEAM In-Use scheme.
Fewer than four cycle spaces - KBCN0134
The minimum number of compliant cycles spaces is always four. To ensure that an adequate minimum number of spaces are provided, where the 50% reduction is applicable, it cannot be used to reduce the number to fewer than four spaces.
Future transport nodes - KBCN0966
Where a transport node is currently inactive but will become active soon after project completion, it can be included when calculating the existing AI.
To demonstrate this, confirmation of the start of service date and service frequency from the appropriate public transport authority or company will be required.
Location of car sharing priority parking - KBCN0796
Priority spaces for car sharers need to be located in the nearest available parking area to the main building entrance or to an entrance regularly used by the car sharers.
Technical manual to be updated accordingly in next reissue.
No car parking provision - KBCN00059
Where the assessment criteria are applicable to a building that has no car parking spaces and where there are no parking spaces accessible to building users, the benchmarks can be considered to be met. If, however, parking is shared with other buildings or parking spaces are available on a campus-type site then the provision must still be assessed.
No data for AI at Design Stage - KBCN0551
If there is insufficient data for a future transport service to include this in the calculation of the AI at the Design Stage, it should not be accounted for.
If at Post Construction stage the data is available, this can be incorporated.
Whilst certain Design Stage requirements can be based on commitments to achieve a certain performance, this must be based on verifiable data.
16/04/18 Wording amended to clarify that this applies to future services and to allow applicability to UK NC 2018
Obligation to provide a minimum number of car parking spaces exceeding BREEAM requirements - KBCN0401
Where it can be demonstrated (by documentary evidence) an obligation to meet a ’minimum car parking requirement’ which exceeds the BREEAM benchmarks is imposed by the planning authority, as long as no more than the stipulated minimum spaces are provided, a single credit can be awarded.
Occupancy calculation – Buildings with shift patterns - KBCN0431
In buildings with shift patterns, as shifts may overlap, the building users calculation should be based on the maximum occupancy of the building at any given time.
On-demand public bus services - KBCN1404
These can be recognised as follows:
This is limited to genuine on-demand bus services, which are operated as public transport with multiple pick-up and drop-off points and does not extend to private hire, taxi or other similar operations.
- The location of the transport node should be determined as the nearest available pick-up point to the assessed building
- The frequency of the service should be considered as the published maximum wait time (or actual average wait time, if the service is established and this data is available)
- Such services, whilst they may serve multiple destinations, should be considered as a single route
- It must be demonstrated that information on the availability and how to access the service is made available to building users
Option 3 – Electric Vehicle Charging Spaces (EVCS) - KBCN1403
The criteria for Option 3 are based on the number and size of dwellings. It has been recognised, however, that for many developments, where the number of car parking spaces provided is limited, this may not be appropriate.
The criteria for this option will be fully reviewed for the forthcoming scheme update, however in the meantime, the following clarifications can be applied.
In order to ensure that provision is available to occupants according to nature of the development and the type of parking arrangement, the requirements are set out as below. For communal parking, accounting for the expected increase in uptake of PEVs (Plug-In Electric Vehicle), whilst mindful of the useful service life of EV charging equipment, the number of fully-functional EVCS required for compliance has been reduced.
Individual dwellings with private parking spaces within the curtilage of the property
The current criteria apply, as per Table 32 (NC2013) and Table 35 (NC2016).
In instances where it can be demonstrated that the total number of parking spaces for the dwelling is less than the number of EVCS required by the criteria, two credits can be awarded where all parking spaces provided are fully functional EVCS.
Developments with communal parking areas
1 Credit – Compliance can be demonstrated by installing all the necessary infrastructure to all car parking spaces, (including visitor spaces, where provided), of which at least 25% are fully functional.
2 Credits - Compliance can be demonstrated by installing all the necessary infrastructure to all car parking spaces (including visitor spaces, where provided), of which at least 50% are fully functional EVCS.
Where on-site parking provision includes special user-groups, such as disabled, car share, car pool or visitors only, compliance can be met where the required percentage of EVCS is provided for those users on a pro-rata basis, with a minimum of one EVCS, per user-group provided for on site.
Where on-site parking provision is limited to such special user-groups only, compliance can be met where the required percentage of EVCS is provided for those users (up to a maximum of providing EVCS for all spaces), with a minimum of one EVCS, per user-group provided for on site.
2 Credits - Compliance can be demonstrated by installing all the necessary infrastructure to all car parking spaces, (including visitor spaces, where provided). This clarifies the guidance previously provided in KBCN1247.
In all cases, the above clarifications do not seek to impose more onerous requirements than those specified in the technical guidance.
Park and Ride Schemes - KBCN0754
'Park and ride' bus services run from one or more car parks to a city centre or other destination to allow travellers to park their car at a convenient location and complete their journey by bus. These generally stop at transport nodes en route to allow passengers to board or alight.
Provided the service meets the aim of the Issue with reference to the guidance, they can be considered for this Issue in the same way as any other bus service.
Parking integral to development’s use - KBCN1145
Dedicated on-site parking which is integral to the function of the development can be excluded from the calculation of parking capacity. Examples could include, but are not limited to:
- Dedicated bays for police vehicles at a police station
- Parking for delivery vehicles at an industrial warehouse
- Holding bays for damaged vehicles at a vehicle repair centre
The spaces are only to be used for this purpose, and must have appropriate signage and / or markings.
Parking spaces with electric car recharging stations - KBCN00044
Electric car spaces should be included in the total number of car parking spaces calculation for maximum car parking capacity.
Whilst electric cars provide benefits in terms of reduced emissions, they do not directly reduce congestion which is one of the aims of this issue.
Pre-payment systems - KBCN0293
Pre-payment systems do not meet the criterion for a cash machine and therefore cannot be used as an alternative.
Cash machines provide additional services for building users, such as cash to use in other shops, the checking of bank balances, which a pre-payment system would not provide.
Priority spaces for car sharers calculation - KBCN0282
The calculation of priority spaces for car sharers should account only for the car parking capacity that is dedicated to the staff working in the building, without considering the spaces for customers or visitors.
As such, car sharing spaces should be clearly segregated from customer/visitor parking areas.
23/03/2017 note added clarifying requirement for segregation
Public Bicycle Sharing Systems - KBCN0473
Public bicycle sharing systems can contribute up to 50% toward providing a compliant number of customer cycle facilities for retail assessments. However, the number of customer cycle racks required must be calculated separately from the provision for staff, otherwise there could be a situation where no customer cycle spaces are provided; only cycle sharing, which would not meet the aim of the issue.
Public car parks - KBCN00092
Any public car parks in the vicinity of the assessed building, for which the building owners/operator are not providing some form of subsidy or an agreement with the car park operators to provide priority spaces for building staff, can be excluded from the assessment.
Rounding the number of parking spaces - KBCN0602
Where the calculated number of car parking spaces is a fraction of a whole number, this should be rounded down to the next whole number to assess the issue.
Fewer parking spaces are preferable as the more sustainable solution.
Safe pedestrian routes: definition, measurement and verification - KBCN0238
Safe pedestrian routes include pavements and safe crossing points or, where provided, dedicated controlled crossing points. A safe crossing point could also be a tactile crossing that drops to the level of the road, which could be used by wheelchair users. An element of assessor judgement is required and if in doubt, their justification of safe crossing points should be provided.
For measuring the distance, for example, you could measure a safe pedestrian route along a pavement, across a road at a safe point and along the pavement on the other side. The distance should not be measured diagonally across a road along the most direct route.
In terms of evidence, Google Maps may be used, provided that the scale is appropriate and clearly indicated. In order to demonstrate that the route is ‘safe’, ‘Streetview’ may be acceptable for Design Stage evidence, however this should be verified by the assessor’s site inspection and photographs of any key areas for the Post Construction Review. The assessor's site inspection is an important aspect of the assessment of this issue as it must confirm that the Google Maps and Streetview information is current, and may help to identify safe crossing points or hazards which may not be apparent from a desktop study.
The purpose of requiring ‘safe pedestrian routes’ is to ensure that there are suitable pavements and that distances are not measured using the shortest route, ignoring safety issues. If a pedestrian crossing or crossing island is available to assist crossing busy road, the route and distance should account for this.
Temporary Car Parking - KBCN0751
The number of car parking spaces should be based on the permanent parking spaces provided specifically for the development once fully operational.
Assessors should determine whether parking spaces should be considered 'permanent' or 'temporary', based on evidence provided by the design team.
Tram services - KBCN000004
Tram services are classified as train services when assessing transport accessibility.
Vehicle (re)charging stations/points - KBCN0934
For BREEAM purposes, a vehicle charging station is a facility that is dedicated to charging vehicles. Provision of a mains-powered electrical socket will not be deemed compliant.
Information correct as of 7thAugust 2020. Please see kb.breeam.com for the latest compliance information.
Visitor car parking spaces for Other Buildings (Transport type 2) - KBCN0242
For developments such as hotels and visitor centres, which have a relatively small number of staff and large visitor numbers, the guest/visitor car parking spaces do not need to be assessed for this Issue where these are separate from the staff parking spaces. However, if the staff and visitor’s spaces are combined (and not clearly segregated) then all spaces must be accounted for within the calculation for maximum car parking capacity.
The aim of this Issue, 'To encourage the use of alternative means of transport...' is intended to apply to those commuting to the building on a regular basis.
21 06 2017 Wording amended to clarify the type of building and building-user covered by this KBCN.