Refurbishment and Fit Out / UK / 2014 /
03 - Energy
Information correct as of 19thJune 2021. Please see kb.breeam.com for the latest compliance information.
Acceptable alternative strategies to sub-metering by floor plate - KBCN00071
An alternative sub-metering strategy, not based on a by-floor-plate basis, would be acceptable provided that:
- it provides an equivalent, or more useful level of detail than sub-metering by floor plate.
- it divides the assessment in a logical manner which provides useful information to building management re: energy use.
- the approach does not conflict with requirements for sub-metering other functional areas.
The intent of sub-metering by floor plate is to allow a large homogenous function (such as office space) to be split up into smaller areas that will allow building management to monitor, identify and influence areas of high energy use. Alternatives that also meet this intent are also acceptable.
Accessibility of energy metering systems - KBCN0580
Energy metering systems should be accessible and the energy consuming end uses visible to building users, such as the facilities manager, where present, and/or other building occupants responsible for the management of the building.
Assessing equipment to be provided later by the tenant/occupier - KBCN0609
The efficiency of equipment to be provided as part of a subsequent fit-out falls outside the scope of this Issue.
Likewise, in a fully fitted but speculative office, where an unknown future tenant will be providing, for example, their own computers, these computers are to be excluded from the assessment.
Compliance must be demonstrated by the equipment fitted/installed within the scope of the development being assessed and, unless specifically stated otherwise, the use of commitments or legally-binding agreements is not accepted to demonstrate compliance for final certification within this BREEAM Scheme.
24/02/2017 CN amended to incorporate KBCN0701
Assessment Part applicability - KBCN1165
The scope of this Issue is determined by the RFO Part(s) assessed.
For example, in a Part 3 only assessment, compliance must be demonstrated only for local services.
The same principle applies when assessing against Part 2 only, where only the core services need to comply.
This Issue is not applicable to Part 1 or Part 4.
Calculating EPR where multiple EPCs are required - KBCN0216
Where more than one BRUKL/EPC is produced for a development, which is registered as a single assessment, an area-weighted average should be used to calculate the number of credits to be awarded. This does not apply where the 'similar buildings' approach is used.
The BRUKL.inp. files should be entered into the S&R tool (or for UK NC2011, uploaded to the Compliance Checker) and the three EPRs produced by the compliance checker, which must then be area-weighted to produce an average EPR for each metric. When applying this method, please include your area-weighting calculations and outputs as supporting evidence.
31/10/2018 wording clarified to apply to all relevant schemes.
Calculating U-values for buildings with extension(s) - KBCN1000
In line with CN ‘Extensions to existing buildings and newly constructed thermal elements’, the performance of the baseline for new thermal elements should be based upon compliance with the appropriate local or national Building Regulations for new thermal elements.
When completing the Elemental level energy model, the existing building U-values for the thermal elements should be calculated as the area-weighted average of the relevant thermal element (e.g, external wall, roof, glazing or ground floor area), excluding any area that is removed to accommodate the extension, and that of the extension, built to meet the local minimum building performance standards.
The U-values for thermal elements of the refurbished building should be calculated as the area-weighted average of the relevant thermal element for refurbished building, including the extension.
This applies when assessing against the 'Elemental level energy model' option.
Centralised air handling units (AHU) - KBCN0941
Where it is not technically feasible to separately meter energy use by floor plate or functional area of a centralised AHU, the requirements of the second credit do not need to be applied to the AHU.
The credit will be assessed based on the rest of the energy uses applicable.
Combined sub-metering of electric heating and small power equipment - KBCN00068
For bedrooms and associated spaces in multi-residential or residential institution building types, it is acceptable, for an electric heating system to be combined with lighting and small power for metering purposes, provided that sub-metering is provided for each floor plate or other appropriate sub-division.
For these building types, sub-metering electric heating in multiple bedrooms may be costly and technically challenging. Where occupants have individual control but are not responsible for paying the utilities bills, the building manager may have little influence on their energy consumption, therefore sub-metering electric heating would provide little or no benefit in meeting the aim of the Issue.
Combined system for heating/cooling and domestic hot water - KBCN0329
Where a common plant that serves the heating / cooling and domestic hot water will be used and where it is not technically feasible to provide separate meters, it is permissible to provide combined metering.
In such cases, a full justification by the design team must be provided in the QA report.
Communal Laundry Facilities – Domestic or Commercial Washing Machines - KBCN0613
The table provided in the manual highlights the criteria for an appliance to be considered domestic or commercial. However, for multi-residential projects (or other building types containing laundry facilities), the BREEAM assessor should use their judgement to determine whether the appliance is commercial or domestic, and justification of the category selected must be provided. For instance, commercial and domestic sized washing machines can be defined based on load size or power rating.
Communal Laundry Facilities- Commercial Sized Tumble Dryers - KBCN0555
Tumble dryers should be taken in to account when calculating the total annual unregulated energy consumption of communal laundry facilities with commercial sized appliances.
Heat recovery from a commercial sized tumble dryer exhaust can be used as an alternative to the solutions listed within the Ene 08 credit issue provided it will achieve a meaningful reduction of energy demand, and justification can be given as to why this method has been implemented over those recommended in the manual.
The list of equipment types and compliance requirements is not intended to be exhaustive, however where alternative solutions are proposed, the design team must provide justification and evidence as outlined above, to the satisfaction of the assessor.
Counterbalancing ratio fixed - KBCN0327
The requirement to analyse the counterbalancing ratio can be omitted if the project team can provide a statement confirming that it has been set by the manufacturer due to existing standards and to maximise efficiency. The remaining criteria must be met.
Deemed to comply solutions – alternative proposals - KBCN1214
The solutions listed for each category in the Table are examples deemed to comply with the requirements, without further justification or calculations to demonstrate a meaningful reduction in unregulated energy consumption.
If an alternative solution is proposed, justification and/or calculations are required to demonstrate this.
Definition of ‘total useful floor area’ - KBCN00079
The total area of all enclosed spaces measured to the internal face of external walls. In this convention:
- The area of sloping surfaces such as staircases, galleries, raked auditoria and tiered terraces should be taken as their area on plan
- Areas that are not enclosed, such as open floors, covered ways and balconies, are excluded
Definition of Accredited Energy Assessor - KBCN0706
BREEAM recognise that CIBSE Low Carbon Design and Simulation consultants are qualified to confirm compliance with Part L Building Regulations and are therefore qualified to produce BRUKL reports demonstrating compliance with Ene 01.
Technical manual to be updated accordingly in next re-issue.
Demonstrating CO2 reduction with no existing building information - KBCN0575
When there is no information about the existing building, any reduction resulting from the incorporation of passive design measures should be demonstrated by comparing the CO2 emissions for the building with and without the proposed passive design measures adopted.
Display lighting - KBCN00097
The display lighting listed in the table includes internal lighting only. External lighting is covered in issue Ene 03.
District heating systems – fuel mix - KBCN0885
Where the feasibility study is considering connection to a district heating system and this burns a mixture of fuels, only the proportion of output generated from second generation bio-fuels (or waste incineration that complies with BREEAM requirements) can be considered for this issue.
For instance, a system burning a 25/75 mix of compliant biofuel vs fossil fuel can only count 25% of its output towards a meaningful reduction in CO2 emissions (where relevant to the BREEAM scheme) against the baseline building.
As fuel mixes may vary over time, at least one year or more of historical information must be provided to balance out any seasonal variations. Where the system is new or proposed, robust evidence must be provided of the anticipated fuel mix.
The fuel mix must be calculated based on the energy content of the input fuels in kWh.
19/12/2017 Wording clarified
Drying space in hotel/ hostel projects - KBCN0174
The Drying space issue is not applicable to projects where occupancy is transient, such as hotel or hostel type developments, but does apply to long term residential buildings.
There is little potential in reducing the energy from drying clothes in hotel and hostel bedrooms compared to long term residential buildings.
Elemental U-values for assessments against Parts 2 and 3 - KBCN1011
Where Part 1 is not being assessed, improvements to the performance building fabric cannot be recognised, whether these be designed or consequential. In order to fully recognise the services efficiency improvements, however, where changes to the building fabric have been made, the post-refurbishment elemental U-values should be used for both pre-and post-refurbishment.
Where a project seeks recognition of improvements to the performance of the building fabric, this must be assessed against Part 1.
Emergency lighting - KBCN0185
Maintained systems featuring emergency light fittings which are also used for normal operation, are assessed for this issue. Non-maintained lighting which is only activated in an emergency can be excluded from the assessment.
The aim of this credit is to encourage and recognise external energy-efficient fittings. Non-maintained emergency lighting will very rarely be activated and in such extremes the emergency requirements must not be compromised.
Energy consumption and carbon emissions of untreated spaces - KBCN00049
Where the assessment contains a mix of treated and untreated spaces, untreated spaces can be excluded and the performance based on the treated spaces only. Where the entire assessment is untreated, the whole of the structure(s) must be assessed on the basis that this issue is critical for certification.
BREEAM is primarily designed to assess permanent, treated and occupied structures. Untreated structures are unlikely to gain many credits when being assessed.
Energy modelling a change of use project - KBCN0574
The energy model for the existing building in a change of use project should include the physical characteristics of the existing building but with the use class of the proposed refurbished building to enable a comparison to be made between the performances of the two buildings.
Moreover, the existing building energy model needs to include the existing services as they were before the refurbishment. Where a particular system to be installed in the refurbished building is not present in the existing building, then the baseline system needs to meet the minimum requirements required to pass building regulations for it.
22/02/2017 Added content clarifying building services
Energy modelling for PV - KBCN0992
Where PV is being specified on the recommendation of a compliant LZC feasibility study, iSBEM can be used to calculate the reduction in regulated CO2 emissions.
The outputs from iSBEM should be as accurate as those from DSM modelling; (iSBEM takes into account the type of PV module, the level of overshadowing and the ventilation strategy).
Energy modelling not required for Building Regulations compliance - KBCN0487
For the purposes of demonstrating BREEAM compliance, it is still necessary to undertake energy modelling to generate the required performance data.
Energy modelling software - KBCN0679
To generate the required EPC files for the pre and post refurbishment building, the same software and software version should be used.
In cases where there is an existing EPC using a different software or a different software version, it would therefore be necessary to generate a new EPC for the existing building, using the same software that is being used to model the refurbished building performance.
In addition, to maintain consistency, where possible the energy modelling should be carried out by the same energy assessor.
This is to avoid differences in performance resulting from changes to the calculation software, rather than changes to the building or other inconsistency.
Energy monitoring and management systems and small useful floor areas - KBCN1361
The requirement for an energy monitoring and management system (Building Management System – BMS) applies to useful floor areas that are greater than 1,000 m2. For developments where useful areas are monitored by single utility meters (of the same fuel) and are smaller than 1,000m2, the BMS requirement is not applicable. This is because the value of monitoring given by a BMS is not appropriate for such small areas.
For example, in a situation where a large building is served by several utility meters (of the same fuel), with none of them covering a useful floor area greater than 1,000 m2, the requirement for BMS is not applicable.
Energy performance assessment for part of a whole building - KBCN0596
If the assessment is only covering part of a whole building, the energy performance assessment must be representative of the part of the building being assessed. Simply taking the energy performance assessment of the whole building would not therefore comply, especially if the non-assessed parts of the building were of a different use. A separate energy assessment of the part of the building is likely to be required.
The energy performance assessment must be representative of the parts of the building being assessed.
This also applies to the predicted energy performance and all energy modelling for the prediction of operation energy consumption.
Amended 01/09/2020 to cover UKNC2018 - Prediction of operational energy consumption
Energy sub-metering – Single occupancy & function - KBCN0491
In large buildings of single occupancy/tenancy where there is only one homogeneous function (e.g. hotel bedrooms, offices), sub-metering should be provided per floor plate.
Evacuation lifts - KBCN0437
Evacuation lifts, which will be used during an emergency only, can be excluded from the relevant BREEAM criteria. However, if these lifts are used during the normal operation of the building, then they still need to be assessed.
Excluding large untreated warehouse spaces from ‘Useful floor area’ - KBCN00069
For industrial buildings, where there are offices and the untreated warehouse space does not include any energy-intensive systems or processes, the warehouse space can be excluded from the calculation of 'useful floor area' to determine whether Criterion 2 or 3 (Criterion 2 only in UK New Construction 2018) is applicable.
For speculative developments, if Planning Consent includes Distribution or Warehousing (UK Planning Use Class B8 or equivalent local planning consent) and the design team and assessor can justify that this is the intended use, the above approach can be followed for untreated warehouse space.
Where there is minimal energy consumption, complex sub-metering such a space would add little benefit.
Wording clarified and note added relating to speculative developments - 16/12/2016
Wording clarified relating to speculative developments - 06/01/2020
Existing lift shaft retained - KBCN0971
Where existing lift shafts are being retained, with a new lift system installed, all criteria for this Issue can still be assessed and credits awarded accordingly, despite the limitations of the existing shafts. The transport analysis should still be carried out as this will inform the developer of any shortfall in capacity and may influence the design of the new lift system.
Despite the limitations of the existing building, BREEAM seeks to reward the installation of an energy-efficient lift system.
Existing lifts outside the scope of assessment - KBCN0793
Transportation systems should be considered as within the scope of the assessment where these serve the assessed area. However, in cases where the developer cannot influence their specification or carry out work to these, they should not be assessed.
This would, for example, include situations where, in an assessment of a tenancy area, the lifts are under the landlord's control or, in a first fit-out assessment of a shell and core development, which includes newly-specified lifts which will not undergo any further work.
Reference in the criteria to compliance for existing lifts is intended to apply where existing lift systems are being refurbished, or where existing lifts are within the control of the developer and are being retained . (Refer also to other relevant compliance notes).
In such cases, where these are the only lifts and transportation system present in the building, this Issue should be filtered out of the assessment by responding ‘no’ to the relevant filtering question in the online scoring and reporting tool.
This Issue is intended to assess transportation systems, which fall within the scope of the refurbishment and where their specification can be influenced as part of the assessed project.
3.11.20 Amendments made in issue 2.0 of the UK RFO 2014 manual.
30.11.17 Re-worded for clarity.
22.11.17 Wording amended to clarify that such lifts will not be assessed.
16.11.17 Clarification added on how to filter out this Issue.
Extending a lift shaft - KBCN0802
Where the scope of works regarding a lift only includes extending the lift shaft to other floors, then assessment of this lift is not appropriate. Where changes are made to the lift system, then assessment is required.
Where changes to lift systems are made, these lifts need to be included in the assessment to encourage specification of energy efficient transport systems.
External lighting inside wider building - KBCN0906
Where a building undergoing assessment is located inside of another building, for example a retail unit within a shopping centre, Ene 03 External lighting and Pol 04 Reduction of night time light pollution should be assessed as follows;
'External lighting' that is inside of the wider building, using the example above the lighting is external of the retail unit itself but inside of the wider shopping centre, criteria relating to the luminous efficacy should be applied as presented within the manual. For the criteria relating to controlled for prevention of operation during daylight hours and presence detection in areas of intermittent pedestrian traffic, however, instead of demonstrating that the lighting is not operational during daylight hours, it should be demonstrated that the lighting is not operational outside of the operational hours of the wider shopping centre. Any external lighting within the scope of works being assessed that is located outside of the wider shopping centre, for example if the retail unit had an entrance or exit that leads on to the street outside, this would need to be assessed against the criteria presented within the manual.
If the building undergoing assessment has no external lighting that is outside of the wider building, it can be considered that the building has no external lighting. However, as above, any external lighting within the scope of works of the assessment that is located outside of the wider building will need to be assessed as the criteria is presented within the manual.
10/05/2019 Reference to specific criteria numbers removed and made applicable to UK NC2018
External wall area – inclusion of doors - KBCN00088
21/12/17 Previous guidance removed. Please refer to the relevant building energy modelling software guidance.
Feasibility study – comparison with connection to existing LZCs - KBCN0563
In carrying out a feasibility study (covering all the areas required as stated in the manual) the primary intent is to demonstrate to a reasonable level of certainty that the chosen LZC is the most appropriate of all those available.
Some of the options (for example community heating/cooling schemes) may not allow for a simple like for like comparison but a comparison can be made overall across many factors. For example in a community heating scheme the life cycle costing estimate might need to be simply the cost of using and maintaining the system for the measuring period, if upfront costs and payback period information is not available. Similarly for an existing community scheme, planning would not be a barrier but land use and noise impacts could be compared.
The feasibility study must include a comparison of all criteria and for it to show that each has been factored into the final option being made. While some options may provide information in different formats and differing levels of detail making direct comparisons not straightforward, a comparison can still be made and this should aim to be as comprehensive and representative as possible. This will serve to demonstrate with reasonable certainty that the chosen option is the most appropriate.
GN21 BREEAM UK Refurbishment and Fit-out Ene 01 Methodology - KBCN0718
The purpose of this guidance note is to provide further information on the BREEAM UK Refurbishment and Fit-out (BREEAM RFO) Ene 01 methodology. This note should be read in conjunction with the guidance provided in the UK Refurbishment and Fit-out technical manual
View full Guidance Note
(licensed assessors only)
View all Guidance Notes
(licensed assessors only)
Head-end systems for smart meters - KBCN0933
As the central component in an Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), head end systems allow data communication and collation from a large and disparate set of smart meters.
Where smart energy meters and sub-meters are to be installed, a head-end system is required for any strategy utilising this technology to be considered for compliance.
Historic buildings – maximum credits available - KBCN1353
The number of additional credits for historic buildings that can be awarded is capped by the number of energy performance credits available for the assessment, as determined by the Ene 01 assessment option/scope.
For example, in an assessment where the number of credits available for energy performance is capped at 2, if it scores 1 of the 2 available energy performance credits, it can only benefit from 1 additional credit by meeting the historic buildings criteria.
The additional credits are intended to recognise cases where the building's performance against the Ene 01 criteria is limited by its historic building status.
Individual and shared drying facilities in larger developments - KBCN0260
Individual bedrooms: an adequate internal or external space with posts and footings, or fixings capable of holding:
This is to avoid over-provision of shared drying facilities in larger developments.
- Two metres of drying line per bedroom where drying facilities are provided in each room, OR;
- Two metres of drying line per bedroom for the first 30 bedrooms, plus one metre of drying line for each additional bedroom where drying facilities are shared.
Laboratory facilities not restricted to building type - KBCN1340
In order to allow buildings with appropriate laboratory facilities to assess the energy performance of their labs, all assessments containing laboratory space and containment areas will be able to assess Issue ‘Energy efficient laboratory systems’, even where the relevant technical manual confirms that the Issue is not applicable to this building type. The Issue remains not applicable to primary and secondary school buildings given the limited scale of their laboratories.
Assessments registered prior to 1 July 2019 have the choice to follow the guidance as stated in the technical manual. They can exclude laboratories by responding negatively to the questions regarding laboratory facilities. For assessments registered after this date, all projects containing laboratories within the scope of the assessment should include the Issue in the assessment.
LCC – LZC energy sources discounted - KBCN0606
When sufficient information can be provided to justify that LZC energy sources are not appropriate for the development, the LCC analysis, for those LZC sources, do not need to be included in the feasibility study.
The feasibility study (covering all the areas required as stated in the manual) intends to demonstrate, to a reasonable level of certainty, that the chosen LZC is the most appropriate of all those available.
Lifts with speeds less than 0.15m/s - KBCN1146
Lifts with speeds less than 0.15m/s fall outside the scope of ISO 25745 and can, therefore, be excluded from the assessment of this Issue. This applies, for example, to lifts in single dwellings or those installed in other low-rise buildings, specifically for the use of persons with impaired mobility.
LZC technologies – energy centre or other LZCs connected at a later stage - KBCN0267
If a project specifies LZCs that have been proposed in the feasibility report which reduce emissions, and/or will be connected to a site-wide energy centre operational at a later stage of the phased development, after the Post Construction Stage review has been submitted, the Energy and Pollution issues can be assessed as follows:
In a phased development where the primary heating system will be upgraded at a later stage than the building being assessed, a commitment to install the new heating source must be made in the General Contract Specification (as per the BREEAM requirements). BREEAM does not specify a particular time for phasing as it is difficult to set parameters, however as a rule building users should have to wait the least time possible before they can use the upgraded heating source.
For the quality audit, two Energy model outputs/EPCs must be produced at the final stage - one with the actual interim system installed for building control, and one for the BREEAM assessment which can include the predicted energy from the proposed energy centre. Additionally, the legally binding general contract specification for the new heating source must be submitted with details of the timescales proposed for the completion of the second phase of work. Where this approach is to be followed BREEAM must be consulted in each case to ensure that the arrangements are sufficiently robust to award the credits.
BREEAM seeks to recognise the environmental impacts of a building's energy use throughout its life, therefore temporary arrangements can be accommodated, provided there is robust evidence on future connection to the permanent systems.
LZC technologies – planning conditions and restrictions - KBCN0535
Where a mandatory planning condition exists (eg to attach to a District Heating Scheme), this will clearly affect the number of options available in a feasibility study. In such cases, compliance can still be achieved where evidence on the planning condition restrictions is provided, and it is clarified how this excludes other technologies from being considered.
The feasibility study will still need to be carried out to cover the remaining energy needs of the building (eg Electrical and lighting load in the case of a district heating scheme).
LZC technologies – shell only feasibility study - KBCN0409
For a shell only project, compliance may be assessed on the built form only i.e. demonstrating that sufficient space and clearance for the installation of future LZCs has been considered, the built form is suitably sited, and that massing and orientation are optimised for the future systems.
Meaningful reduction in emissions - KBCN00027
The definition of 'meaningful reduction' is context specific. The required reduction in active cooling demand or CO2 emissions are not specified in the criteria as this is specific to each project. To demonstrate a meaningful reduction, the passive design analysis must show that:
- A rigorous and pragmatic approach was taken in selecting the most suitable strategies / technologies
- The strategies sought to maximise the potential for reduction in energy consumption, taking into account technical and site constraints
As the potential for reduction is context specific, the assessor's judgement can determine whether a 'meaningful reduction' has been achieved. For instance:
Scenario 1: Assessment has multiple site constraints which result in a 2% reduction in CO2 emissions. The assessor is satisfied that the design team have made a significant effort to maximise the potential for reduction having considered technical and site constraints. This would be considered a meaningful reduction.
Scenario 2: The passive design analysis has highlighted a potential for significant reduction with LZCs, however many of these technologies were discounted due to capital cost considerations. The resulting building achieves a 6% reduction in CO2 emissions, however the actual potential was significantly higher. This would not be considered a meaningful reduction.
Measures in CIBSE TM50 for Kitchen and catering facilities - KBCN0663
The measures are listed in the section summaries (blue boxes) in the guide. The sections that follow each summary in the Guide are explanations of the measures. Therefore you can refer to these parts if you need further clarification about the measures.
When considering which measures to target, first discount any energy efficiency measures which are not applicable to the project, or are specifically excluded in the criteria.
Of the remaining measures, where the criteria requires that two thirds or more are to be achieved always round up any figures. For instance if there are five applicable measures in a section, four will need to be achieved. If there are only two, both will need to be achieved.
Many measures in TM50 require consideration of what is the best option or specification. The intent of our criteria is to demonstrate that these measures have been considered by the relevant specialist and have informed the design and specification of the catering facilities, but energy savings do not need to be quantified.
At design stage it is acceptable for a letter or document to be produced confirming how each measure has been considered along with justification for how this has informed the specification. Where the measures require training to be carried out, relevant training materials could be used as evidence. At post-construction stage, any type of general evidence deemed appropriate by the assessor would be sufficient to confirm the specified measures have been installed.
25/08/2017 Updated to clarify compliance and evidence requirements.
New EU energy labels - KBCN1445
In recent years, the market for domestic-scale appliances has seen excellent progress, with increasingly energy-efficient products becoming widely available. Consequently, the A-rated category was extended over time to include A+, A++, and A+++ ratings. Meanwhile, the lower ratings, such as E, F and G have become increasingly rare. It was clear that an adjustment to a new, simpler set of ratings was required.
March 2021, the European Commission requires new, updated energy labels of A to G for dishwashers, washing machines, fridges and electronic displays.
Lamps will require the new ratings from 1st
September 2021 and requirements for re-labelling tumble dryers are yet to be confirmed.
- A+ to A+++ will transition mainly to C through to F
- A and B will initially apply to very few products
- G ratings will be phased out, with F ratings to follow
Changes for BREEAM and HQM
As a result of the introduction of the new EU ratings and in order to maintain the original intent of the BREEAM criteria, the approach for our schemes has had to change.
It is not possible to establish direct equivalence between the old and new energy labels, therefore the updated approach will be to recognise the best-performing 25% of each appliance type, based on a comprehensive market sample. The table below shows how this translates into the new EU Energy Labels for different appliance types.
This approach will ensure that BREEAM continues to drive the energy efficiency of appliances by demonstrating a meaningful reduction in energy consumption. Note that these new requirements will be reviewed from time to time and may be subject to change.
Where assessments have already specified (and can procure) products bearing the old labels, it is acceptable to follow the previous criteria. However, where products bear the new label and for all assessments registered after 31/05/2021, the new criteria must be met.
12 May 2021 - Guidance updated and applicability to HQM One and BREEAM NOR confirmed.
Night-time operation – requirement for controls - KBCN1048
Projects which operate at night-time can adapt or omit the requirement to provide controls or presence detection to align with the building’s hours of operation.
The aim of this Issue is to reduce the energy use for external lighting and should not interfere with the building’s operation.
No existing systems to determine building performance - KBCN0607
For both Options 1 and 2 where a particular system is to be installed in the refurbished building, but no existing system is present, the following performance levels should be assumed for the existing building;
- First fit-out (Part 2 and/or 3): assume values for the system that just meet those specified in Part L2a (current new-build regulations) for the notional building;
- Second fit-out (Part 2 and/or 3): assume values for the system that just meet Part L2b (current refurb regulations) requirements.
For Option 2 you may enter a performance value for the existing building that either just meet or is poorer performing than the relevant minimum performance levels.
For heating, cooling, ventilation and hot water systems in the existing building, the same system types as the refurbished building should be assumed.
24/08/17 KBCN amended to include KBCN0761 'first fit-out of a shell and core development'.
CN amended to add clarification on performance values for existing services.
No unregulated energy consumption in the building - KBCN00066
Where there are no items, contributing to the unregulated (or equipment) energy consumption in the building, there is currently no mechanism to award credits. If, however, in this situation, significant contributors, not listed in the table, will be specified, the design team should justify how a meaningful reduction will be achieved for these contributors, in order to demonstrate compliance.
08/05/19 Wording amended to account for situations, where a meaningful reduction in unregulated energy can be demonstrated by other means.
18.05.2017 KBCN applicability removed for NC2011 and NC2013, for which compliance can be demonstrated via the three shell and core options, as per the technical manual.
Office equipment – mobile devices - KBCN00041
Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets, which are generally used without connection to an electrical power source, should be excluded from the assessment of the energy efficient equipment issue.
Devices which are not generally connected to an electrical power source when used are excluded from the 'office equipment' definition as they do not directly affect the unregulated energy consumption of the building.
On-site LZC – whole site shared connection - KBCN1424
To be recognised in BREEAM, the on-site Low and Zero Carbon (LZC) technology must have a direct physical connection to the assessed building.
Where the LZC technology is;
- located on the same site,
- is owned and managed by the same organization as the assessed building, and
- where it is impractical to physically connect the assessed building to the system
it is acceptable to allocate the energy generated from this technology to the assessed building proportionally as a calculation of the building's predicted energy consumption compared to the total energy consumption of the whole site.
To allocate renewable electricity by proportional consumption follow these steps;
- Obtain the total amount of annual renewable electricity generated on-site;
- Exclude all renewable electricity which has been exported to the grid;
- Determine the respective electricity consumption of all buildings on the whole site (predicted for new builds/measured for existing buildings).
Where consumption data is missing, renewable electricity must not be allocated to the assessed building. In this case, it is assumed that all electricity consumed is sourced from the grid.
Only lifts in building are for persons with impaired mobility - KBCN1330
Where the only lifts, escalators or moving walkways in the assessed development are for persons with imparied mobility with speeds no greater than 0.15m/s, and there are no lifts which fall within the scope of the criteria, the Issue should be filtered out of the assessment. Credits cannot be awarded by default.
Option 1 for Scotland - KBCN0940
The Option 1: Whole Building Energy Model methodology is only compatible with English and Welsh EPCs.
As the Scottish EPC methodology differs, projects in Scotland will need to generate an English EPC file to upload to the system.
This will be clarified in the next re-issue of the manual.
Parts of the building not subject to national thermal regulations - KBCN0534
Where you have parts of the assessed building which are not subject to national thermal regulations then these should be omitted from the EPR calculation.
Passive design analysis – Parts 2 and 3 - KBCN0859
Whilst the majority of passive measures can only be influenced in the base-build, for a Part 2 and 3 assessment it is considered that those listed in the 'Passive design analysis' CN should be reviewed in terms of what can be done with the assessment scope (which may be limited to the last 4 measures for example). Where any of the listed items are not considered, as long as justification is provided in terms why these have not / cannot be considered, this would be acceptable.
Consideration should also be given to what passive design features were incorporated in the base-build and how these are carried through into the fit-out. For example, a passive ventilation strategy in the base-build, must be maintained in the fit-out, rather than sealing all the windows and installing air-conditioning.
In conclusion, in order to ensure a sustainable fit-out, full consideration must be given to how any passive measures from the base-build are maintained or enhanced and any additional measures which can be implemented in the assessment scope.
Passive design analysis – reference to Compliance Note - KBCN1166
The reference in the manual in criterion 2 is incorrect and should point to CN "Passive design analysis".
Technical manual to be amended in the next re-issue.
Passive design analysis where Hea 04 is not applicable - KBCN1236
Where Hea 04 is not applicable to the building type and options selected (for example an industrial building with no office areas), criterion 1 of Ene 04 is not applicable.
Passive design analysis – Error in the Methodology section - KBCN1260
The Methodology section for 'Passive design analysis' includes the following error in relation to the baseline to be used for comparison:
- Where it reads: '...the relevant Building Regulations notional building or, for Scotland, an equivalent compliant building...'
- This should read: 'the existing building', in line with criterion 2
Technical manual to be updated accordingly in next reissue.
Point of use water heaters - KBCN0773
Small 'point of use' water heaters can be excluded from the sub-metering requirements.
Only major energy consuming systems that have a measurable impact on the operational energy consumption need to be included.
Portable clothes drying racks - KBCN0164
Portable clothes drying racks are not compliant.
These are not a fixed feature of the built asset and could be removed or moved to rooms which are not sufficiently ventilated.
Re-used electrical equipment - KBCN0325
BREEAM does not currently recognise the reuse of electrical equipment as the most energy efficient option for compliance with this issue. If it can be demonstrated that such existing electrical appliances meet the criteria for inclusion in the relevant national or international energy efficient equipment schemes, these can be considered compliant.
If new equipment is procured in addition to the re-use of the old equipment, the existing equipment may be excluded from this assessment. In these situations the assessor must be satisfied that the new equipment would make a meaningful reduction to overall unregulated energy consumption.
This issue assesses the reduction of unregulated energy consumption in operation and does not currently assess embodied energy in the manufacture of equipment.
Regenerative drives – requirement for specification - KBCN1253
Requirements for the specification of a regenerative drive for lift installations are subject to an analysis of resultant energy savings. However, where it can be demonstrated that this is not financially viable, accounting for payback over the service life of the installation, this option can be discounted.
Please also refer to other scheme-specific guidance relating to this requirement.
Retained external lighting - KBCN0782
All external lighting within the construction zone, whether retained without alterations, retained with alterations or newly specified, must meet the requirements of Ene 03 and Pol 04.
The aims of the two issues are to encourage the use of energy efficient external lighting and reduce night-time pollution and nuisance to neighbours from the assessed building. Even if new proposed lighting meets compliance, the existing lighting fixtures could have a high energy demand and result in night-time light pollution.
RGB LED lighting - KBCN0986
RGB LED lighting must be assessed against the average external lighting efficacy benchmark.
The current criteria do not completely rule out the use of RGB LED lighting as it can potentially be combined with other types of external lighting to meet the average efficacy benchmark.
Scope of energy efficient cold storage - KBCN00029
The scope of this issue covers freezer or cold storage rooms which are integral to the building. The criteria for this issue relate to the design, systems, components and operation of the cold store. These are, therefore, relevant and applicable where a cold store is designed specifically for the assessed development.
"Kitchen and catering facilities" refers to commercial-sized, but self-contained, off-the-shelf
units (e.g. large freezers or fridges) which are delivered and installed incorporating their own refrigeration systems. These are not assessed under this issue but may fall within the scope of the 'Energy efficient equipment' issue, where applicable.
02/06/17 Further clarified to convey the applicability of this Issue
02/12/16 Wording clarified - no change to approach.
Security lighting - KBCN0915
The criteria generally apply to all external lighting, including security lighting. However, due to specific security requirements, there may be situations where a particular aspect of the criteria cannot be met, as they would compromise the development's security. For example, the use of PIR sensors may not be appropriate in high security developments, where continuous night-time CCTV surveillance is required.
In such cases, where this is justified by the security consultant or other appropriate member of the design team, compliance can demonstrated for the security lighting by meeting all other relevant criteria.
BREEAM does not seek to not impose requirements which could potentially compromise the development’s security strategy
10.03.2020 - KBCN amended following review. It has been determined that the criteria for this Issue must be applied to all security lighting, except as described above. KBCN no longer applicable to UK NC2011 as there is no criterion relating to PIR in this scheme.
Self-contained dwellings or units with individual utility meters - KBCN0199
Where self-contained dwellings or units covered by the assessment have their own individual energy supply and utility meter (e.g. water, gas or electricity), this supply can be excluded from the scope of the issue. All shared energy supplies and common areas under the responsibility of building management are still included in the assessment.
For example, if self-contained flats in an assisted living development have individual gas supplies with their own utility meter, this supply will be excluded from the assessment. However, the lighting and small power comes from a shared distribution board on each floor, in which case this shared supply will need to be sub-metered in accordance with the criteria.
12/09/2018 Applicable to Water Monitoring Issue where appropriate
27/09/2017 The word 'units' added to include a wider range of scenarios falling under this principle.
Services efficiency improvements in assessments against Part 1 only - KBCN1144
Where Parts 2 or 3 are not being assessed, improvements to the performance of the building services cannot be recognised, whether these be designed or consequential. In order to fully recognise the fabric efficiency improvements, however, where changes to the building services have been made, the post-refurbishment services performance values should be used for both pre-and post-refurbishment.
Where a project seeks recognition of improvements to the performance of the building services, this must be assessed against Part 2 or 3.
Single functional area and no tenanted areas – operational energy monitoring - KBCN00056
For a building with only a single functional area and no tenanted or additional functional areas to be sub-metered, both credits, where applicable to the building type, can be awarded if the first credit has been achieved.
Small retail stores not meeting the definition of ‘baseline supermarket’ - KBCN0214
Where the design team can confirm that the 'baseline supermarket' defined in the Refrigeration Road Map does not provide an appropriate benchmark for the small retail store (i.e. it is below 2,000m2 as specified in the Road Map and the store has proportionately higher energy per sq m delivered values) then it would be appropriate to comply with the guidance on 'Non retail buildings and the Carbon Trust Refrigeration Road Map Action Plan' and generate a more appropriate baseline. Typical installations and technologies should be proposed for this baseline where the systems being compared should have the same duty/service conditions and include relevant consumption from the refrigeration systems’ ancillary equipment.
Space heating as major energy use - KBCN0939
Where possible, space heating should always be considered as a major energy use for sub-metering purposes.
Where space heating cannot be separated from hot water, this must be fully justified by the design team at QA.
See KBCN0329: Combined system for space heating/cooling and domestic hot water.
Where electric space heating is used, this in itself cannot be used as justification for combining the space heating along with lighting and small power unless there is a clear justification for doing so.
See KBCN0068: Combined sub-metering of electric heating and small power equipment.
Statutory requirements for energy modelling differ from BREEAM - KBCN0127
For the purposes of BREEAM, Issue Ene 01 should be assessed using a BRUKL output based on the prevalent UK country Building regulations applicable to that scheme.
This applies even when the building does not need to undertake energy modelling to comply with Building Regulations.
Where a different analysis is required for statutory compliance, due to the location of the project or registration to an earlier or later version of Part L, a different output must be produced for this purpose.
Alternatively, where applicable, the BREEAM registration could be updated to the latest version, so the same energy model output can be used for both purposes.
To maintain consistency and comparability for all assessments registered to a scheme.
Sub-metering at least 90% of each fuel - KBCN0657
In a scenario whereby several energy consuming systems are not sub-metered because they account for less than 10% of the annual energy consumption (see Ene 02 methodology), and this results in less than 90% of the estimated annual energy consumption of that fuel being metered, the M&E consultant should review the metering strategy and advise which of these energy consuming systems would most benefit from sub-metering to make up the 90%.
This may be based on which of the energy consuming systems has the highest annual energy consumption, or which has the most potential for reducing energy consumption as a result of sub-metering. This will not necessarily have to mean that the energy consuming systems chosen have to have their own sub-meter, the M&E consultant may decide they would most benefit from metering alongside another consuming system. However ultimately 90% of each fuel must be metered.
Justification should be given within the metering strategy and the BREEAM assessment report as to which lower energy consuming systems were chosen to be sub-metered to make up the 90%, and how this was done to best suit the development (i.e. individual sub-meters or paired with another consuming system).
Sub-metering by calculation - KBCN0700
For simple sub-metering strategies, it is acceptable to calculate a single end-use by subtraction of known, sub-metered end-uses from the relevant main utility meter reading. For more complex strategies, where a BMS/BEMS is used, the software should be capable of calculating and displaying all required end-uses in line with the criteria.
Sub-metering of high energy load and tenancy areas – existing building systems - KBCN1341
Where a refurbishment assessment contains existing systems which are impractical to retro-fit in accordance with the sub-metering criteria, a practical alternative metering strategy may be acceptable (see also KBCN00071). Where existing systems cannot be retro-fitted, however, the credit is not awarded by default; this does not meet the intent of the guidance for additional metering beyond a whole building approach.
In all cases, suitable evidence should be provided to QA that demonstrates the inability to fully comply with the criteria, and that all practical means have been taken towards fulfilling the intent of the credit.
In refurbishment projects it is not always practical to undertake significant retro-fits to existing building systems. Where such changes require disproportionate effort in relation to the scale and complexity of the project, BREEAM will accept more practical solutions that still meet the intent of the credit.
Total area of ground floor - KBCN00087
When determining the 'total area of ground floor (m2)', the Gross Floor Area (GFA) should be used, which includes the thickness of the external walls.
This is to align with Construction industry understanding.
Towel rails - KBCN00081
Towel rails cannot count towards the drying line requirements.
Clothes drying lines are provided to reduce the need to tumble drying clothes, which uses a lot of energy. Using towel rails to dry clothes would require the potentially damp towels to be stored while the clothes dry. This is inconvenient and therefore means the aim of the credit is less likely to be met.
Transportation analysis carried out by the lift manufacturer - KBCN0232
BREEAM recognises that lift manufacturers / suppliers are often engaged to provide such specialist advice. Where the assessor is satisfied that the analysis has been carried out correctly, the analysis can be submitted as compliant evidence.
Use of as-designed BRUKL output for post-construction submission - KBCN0889
Where it is not possible to produce an as-built BRUKL output for the post-construction assessment, it is acceptable to produce an updated as-designed BRUKL output that accurately reflects the constructed building as evidence for the post-construction submission.
A justification should be issued to QA clarifying why an as-designed BRUKL was submitted, along with confirmation from the relevant specialist that the model is an accurate representation of the final, as-built specification of the building.
Information correct as of 19thJune 2021. Please see kb.breeam.com for the latest compliance information.