New Construction /
Information correct as of 24thSeptember 2021. Please see kb.breeam.com for the latest compliance information.
Acceptable alternative strategies to sub-metering by floor plate - KBCN00071
An alternative sub-metering strategy, not based on a by-floor-plate basis, would be acceptable provided that:
- it provides an equivalent, or more useful level of detail than sub-metering by floor plate.
- it divides the assessment in a logical manner which provides useful information to building management re: energy use.
- the approach does not conflict with requirements for sub-metering other functional areas.
The intent of sub-metering by floor plate is to allow a large homogenous function (such as office space) to be split up into smaller areas that will allow building management to monitor, identify and influence areas of high energy use. Alternatives that also meet this intent are also acceptable.
Accessibility of energy metering systems - KBCN0580
Energy metering systems should be accessible and the energy consuming end uses visible to building users, such as the facilities manager, where present, and/or other building occupants responsible for the management of the building.
Adoption of road in the development - KBCN0331
Where a development includes roads, these are often adopted by a statutory authority (for example the Highways agency or the local authority in the UK).
Where the authority will be taking responsibility for the roads, the following guidance should be followed to determine if the water run-off from the roads needs to be considered as part of the assessment:
- If the road drainage system bypasses the new development's network to connect directly to the local drainage network, then the water running off from the roads does not need to be considered for this assessment. Evidence will need to be provided to demonstrate if this is the case.
- If the road drainage system connects to the development drainage network before connecting to the local drainage network, then the water run off from the roads must be considered for the assessment.
Where the authority will NOT be taking responsibility for the roads, the BREEAM criteria should be followed for all drainage on site.
Aftercare – speculative developments - KBCN0101
For speculative projects (i.e. where the end occupiers are unknown), the Aftercare issue will be filtered out. Any relevant minimum standard will not be applicable in such cases.
Where the end-user is unknown it is not possible to demonstrate compliance with the Aftercare issue requirements.
Aircraft safety – developments in the proximity of airports - KBCN0912
Where it can be demonstrated that an assessed development, within or adjacent to an airport or similar, must restrict the ecological value of the site for reasons of aircraft safety (mitigating the risk of bird-strikes to meet local or national regulations), the approach for some issues in the Land Use and Ecology category can be adjusted. If in these circumstances, the client wishes to enhance ecological value on an external site, outside of the main development site, this can be considered in the following way for each issue:
Site selection: The development site only must be assessed.
Ecological value of site and protection of ecological features: The development site only must be assessed, but the recommendations may be tailored to suit the requirements of the relevant legislation.
Enhancing site ecology: The development site and the external site must be included in the SQE’s report and recommendations, albeit that, for the development site, the approach may to be to restrict biodiversity. Enhancements implemented in-line with the recommendations of the SQE are likely to apply to the external site.
Long term impact on biodiversity: Both sites must be considered in the SQE’s report to meet the prerequisite/first credit as applicable, albeit that, for the development site, the approach may to be to restrict biodiversity. Further credits in relation to improving and maintaining the site’s long-term biodiversity can be awarded on the basis of adopting these for the external site only, in line with the guidance.
Alternative calculation method - KBCN0547
Where it is not possible to use the standard approach to determine the building’s total water consumption, the assessment can be completed on an elemental basis. This applies even in cases where the Wat 01 Excel calculator tool has a section for a broader building type, but the defined activity areas do not match the specific project under assessment. For example, although Wat 01 calculator includes a retail calculator, bars and restaurants should be assessed using the alternative calculation method, as no relevant data is available for the specific activity within retail.
Where the activity areas of the building under assessment do not allow using the relevant building type’s calculator, then the alternative calculation approach should be used.
Alternative method performance levels and credits - KBCN1007
Specifying water component performance levels according to the levels of the alternative calculation method does not equate directly to the number of credits achieved. For example, choosing all components with a level 3 performance will not equate to the achievement of 3 credits.
Alternative Modes of Transport- Exemplary level criteria - KBCN0561
Two of the options in this issue must be fully achieved in order to achieve the exemplary level credit.
If Option 5 is one of the options chosen to demonstrate compliance with this issue, Criteria 11 - 13 must be fully achieved i.e. both of the available credits under this option must awarded to enable it to count towards the exemplary credit being achieved.
If only the first credit has been achieved for Option 5, the exemplary credit can not be achieved, even where one of the Options 1-4 have also been achieved.
Option 5 separates the two available credits to enable the credit for the provision of compliant cycle storage spaces to be awarded independently of the credit for compliant cyclist facilities, however achieving only one of these is not sufficient to contribute towards achieving the exemplary level credit.
Alternatives to composting - KBCN0465
In anaerobic digesters, organic waste is digested by micro-organisms which break down fats, oils and grease. Digesters where the only output is water that is safe to discharge into drains and sewers are acceptable alternatives to composting.
Macerators which simply reduce solids into small pieces through a shredding or grinding process and flush the residue into the drainage system are not an acceptable alternative to composting.
Amenities – Access to cash - KBCN0359
An ATM inside a building would be acceptable provided that its opening hours are similar to those of the assessed building, regardless of whether there is a nominal charge for the service. Cash-back from the till in a retail outlet is not compliant.
Access to cash should be available to the building users at all relevant times of the day. This should not require a prior purchase of goods and should provide access to other services, such as checking account balances.
Amenities – Pharmacy within hospital - KBCN0321
A publicly accessible pharmacy would typically be required in order to constitute a suitable amenity. If it can be confirmed that an internal pharmacy (in Northern Ireland this may also include an onsite controlled medical dispensary) will provide prescribed medicines for building users, this is acceptable.
Amenities – Sandwich van as a food outlet - KBCN0557
A food truck/ mobile catering service would not be sufficient to meet the criteria for this issue.
The aim of this Issue is to assess the location of the built asset relative to amenities.
Amenities – Vending machine as a food outlet - KBCN0653
A vending machine can be considered as a food outlet if a range of items, as can be reasonably expected, are for sale to meet the needs of the building users and it is confirmed to be a permanent fixture.
Applicability of flow control devices - KBCN00057
The criteria are applicable to the cold water supply only and include cold taps, WCs and urinals. Any solution implemented to achieve compliance with this Issue should effectively mitigate the risk of hot-water scalding in showers, in the event that the cold water supply is shut off.
06/03/18 - Wording amended to make the guidance more outcome-driven and to account for solutions other than not providing flow-control devices on the supply pipework to shower areas.
Applying internal partition sound insulation criteria to internal doors - KBCN0665
Where sound insulation criteria apply to internal partitions the calculations do need to include any doors which are part of the wall in question.
While sound insulation performance of a typical door will be lower than for a typical wall, with careful design, specification and detailing, this can be overcome.
Applying the daylighting criteria - KBCN0579
When assessing the daylighting criteria, the required rooms must fully meet criteria 2a, 2b or 2c. It is not possible to combine criteria 2a, 2b and 2c to assess one room.
Apportioning foundations where not all floors are assessed - KBCN0643
Where a development does not include all the storeys of a building, not all of the aggregates used in the building foundations need to be included in the assessment. Any apportioning must be justified and calculated by a structural engineer, and it is the responsibility of the assessor to ensure that the process used is appropriate, robust and meets the aim of the credit issue.
Approach to thermal model when using BMS - KBCN0169
Where there are smart systems such as BMS in place, modelling must consider normal operating conditions, with the heating and cooling system in operation regardless of the control strategy.
In order for the design team to size the heating/cooling plant, they will carry out modelling to calculate the heat/cold loss throughout the year. Results of these calculations must be submitted, with the heating/cooling plant specification which would demonstrate that the building has been designed to ensure internal winter/summer temperatures will not drop below an acceptable level, and that in effect the winter TOR is zero.
Areas consuming less than 10% of the building’s total water demand - KBCN0662
Where water-consuming plants or building areas are required to be sub-metered as a minimum, the requirements apply even if those plant/elements consume less than 10% of the building's total water demand.
Areas in the public domain - KBCN0587
Where areas within the site boundary will be public domain after construction, and the design/specification has been determined by the local authority/statutory body/planning permission etc, they can be excluded from the assessment of the 'Safe Access' criteria. Evidence would be required to demonstrate that this was the case.
Where the client/design team do not have control of the design of these areas, the development should not be prevented from achieving the credit.
Astroturf (artificial grass) - KBCN0106
This is not be considered as hard landscaping and should be excluded from the assessment of this issue.
Backup or emergency heating systems - KBCN0936
NOx calculations should be based on permanent heating systems and should not include backup systems used for maintenance or in emergencies.
BREEAM assessments measure the as designed performance level of the building as it normally functions.
BREEAM Accredited Professional (AP) – Retrospectively applying AP status - KBCN0308
The AP status cannot be applied retrospectively. The purpose of using an AP on a project is that they can advise and steer the development from the outset to maximise its BREEAM and sustainability performance for the least cost/risk. If early AP appointment and involvement does not occur then the aims and criteria of this BREEAM issue are not being met.
BREEAM AP – Achieving the design credit at the Post Construction Assessment - KBCN0215
Where a project will be undertaking a post construction stage assessment only (no interim assessment), to demonstrate that the criteria were met at the design stage a "BREEAM credit monitoring report" should be provided when the assessment is submitted, which shows that at the design stage of the project the building was still on target for the proposed BREEAM rating. This could be an excel document showing the issues that the design is on target for achieving with a short summary of how the BREEAM AP is steering the project for the correct rating.
As long as the criteria are met and the correct information can be gathered for your evidence, a design stage certification is not required.
BREEAM AP – Change of BREEAM APs/Sustainability champions during project - KBCN0295
Whilst it would generally be preferable to retain the same individual in the role of BREEAM AP/Sustainability champion throughout the design and construction of a particular project for the purposes of continuity, we appreciate that this may not always be feasible. It is therefore entirely appropriate that the three credits available for using BREEAM APs/Sustainability champions can still be awarded where the individual performing the role changes (provided the ongoing involvement of an AP/SC is maintained in accordance with the criteria).
BREEAM AP/Sustainability Champion appointment timing - KBCN0738
It is acceptable for the BREEAM AP/Sustainability Champion to be appointed later than the required stage, if it can be demonstrated that the AP/Sustainability Champion was appointed at the earliest appropriate time in the project and that the late involvement will not have a detrimental effect on the setting of BREEAM performance targets that need to be formally agreed no later than the concept design stage.
Building LCA tools recognised by BREEAM - KBCN1118
The following table shows the building LCA tools that are recognised by BREEAM for each BREEAM scheme. Only submissions from the tools listed here will be accepted as part of a BREEAM assessment.
These recognised tools may be either an IMPACT Compliant tool or another type of building LCA tool that has been evaluated by BREEAM and considered suitable for carrying out building LCA according to BREEAM’s scheme specific requirements. To apply for a new tool to be evaluated, please contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
Where more than one version of the same tool is listed for a given scheme version, the most recent version of the tool (that is available at the point building LCA work commences on the project) should be used.
It is acceptable to use subsequent, more recent releases/versions of a recognised tool (that have the same name as shown in the table).
Click on the thumbnail for the full table.
Table updated to include new recognised LCA tools 12/03/2021
KBCN updated for clarity regarding subsequent tool versions on 10/03/2021
Campus with multiple building assessments - KBCN0597
If a campus development project has multiple building assessments being built in conjunction with each other, each building should be assessed independently. Where there are noise sensitive buildings; including any new buildings in the process of being built, the criteria requirements must still be met.
Capital cost reporting and LCC measured area - KBCN0438
When assessing the Capital cost reporting and the LCC credits, the area to be considered should be the Gross Internal Floor Area (GIFA), according to the below RICS definition
Gross Internal Floor Area
Gross Internal Floor Area is the area of a building measured to the internal face of the perimeter walls at each floor level, which includes:
- Areas occupied by internal walls and partitions
- Columns, piers chimney breasts, stairwells, lift-wells, other internal projections, vertical ducts, and the like
- Atria and entrance halls with clear height above, measured at base level only
- Internal open sided balconies, walkways, and the like
- Structural, raked or stepped floors are treated as a level floor measured horizontally
- Horizontal floors with permanent access below structural, raked or stepped floors
- Corridors of a permanent essential nature (e.g. fire corridors, smoke lobbies, etc.)
- Areas in the roof space intended for use with permanent access (BCIS)
- Mezzanine areas intended for use with permanent access
- Lift rooms, plant rooms, fuel stores, tank rooms which are housed in a covered structure of a permanent nature, whether or not above main roof level
- Service accommodation such as toilets, toilet lobbies, bathrooms, showers, changing rooms, cleaners’ rooms and the like
- Projection rooms
- Voids over stairwells and lift shafts on upper floors
- Loading bays
- Areas with a headroom of less than 1.5m
- Pavement vaults
- Conservatories (BCIS)
- Perimeter wall thickness and external projections
- External open-sided balconies, covered ways and fire escapes
- Voids over or under structural, raked or stepped floors
- Greenhouses, garden stores, fuel stores and the like in residential property
- Open ground floors and the like (BCIS)
14.02.18 - KBCN content amended to extend the applicability to LCC and to refer to GIFA rather than GEA, to reflect current industry practice.
Car sharing - KBCN0878
This measure will generally be unavailable to speculative projects.
To fully implement the car sharing option, the building occupants need to be known and signed up to a car sharing scheme in-line with the criteria.
Certificate validity – EMS - KBCN1401
The requirement for the principal contractor to operate an EMS relates to the duration of operations on site. Certification against ISO 14001/EMAS must be valid at the Design Stage and Post Construction Stage submissions and cannot be expired, pending or applied retrospectively.
07/05/2021: Clarification on Design and Post Construction Stage added
Change in main contractor - KBCN0645
In situations where the main contractor changes mid-project, for example where the original contractor goes into administration and is replaced by another main contractor, it is acceptable for the post-construction credits to be awarded based on the new contractor providing information on their activities. This is providing the project is yet to start on site. This is in effect assessing the issue using the Post Construction Assessment route instead of a Post Construction Review.
However, if the project has already started on site and information about the site activities of the previous contractor is not available it would not be appropriate to award the credit solely based on the new contractor activities.
Changing the project scope (Fully fitted/Shell Only/Shell & Core) between Design Stage certification and Post Construction Review - KBCN0990
The Post Construction Review (PCR) must reflect the Design Stage (DS) in all aspects. If anything changes in terms of the scheme, version, building type, functions, scope, size between DS certification and PCR, then the project cannot have a PCR and would need to be registered as a new Post Construction Assessment (PCA).
Therefore if a Shell only/Shell and core project has been certified at the DS, this cannot be changed to Fully fitted at PCR and should go through a PCA. However, only in this specific situation, where it changes from Fully Fitted to Shell and vice versa, the DS registration can be used to submit a PCA. Submitting a PCA against the DS registration will supercede the DS certification and the certificate will be re-issued as a PCA. This will incur the PCA certification fee.
Any other changes between DS certification and PCR will need to be registered as a new assessment and can be submitted as a PCA.
Queries regarding registrations and PCRs can be directed to the BREEAM Registration team.
Checklist A1 – not applicable items - KBCN0770
If you can clearly justify and robustly demonstrate that an item in Checklist A1 is not applicable on the assessed project, for the purposes of the BREEAM scoring, this item can be considered compliant.
CHP NOx emission conversion - KBCN0592
If the CHP manufacturer cannot provide the NOx emissions in mg/kWh it is not possible to award any credits. The CHP manufacturer must provide the NOx emissions in mg/kWh, the conversion factors provided in the Technical Manual can only be used for boilers.
Combined sub-metering of electric heating and small power equipment - KBCN00068
For bedrooms and associated spaces in multi-residential or residential institution building types, it is acceptable, for an electric heating system to be combined with lighting and small power for metering purposes, provided that sub-metering is provided for each floor plate or other appropriate sub-division.
For these building types, sub-metering electric heating in multiple bedrooms may be costly and technically challenging. Where occupants have individual control but are not responsible for paying the utilities bills, the building manager may have little influence on their energy consumption, therefore sub-metering electric heating would provide little or no benefit in meeting the aim of the Issue.
Combined system for heating/cooling and domestic hot water - KBCN0329
Where a common plant that serves the heating / cooling and domestic hot water will be used and where it is not technically feasible to provide separate meters, it is permissible to provide combined metering.
In such cases, a full justification by the design team must be provided in the QA report.
Commercial dishwasher appropriate data - KBCN0687
If the component is present in the building but the appropriate data is unavailable from the manufacturer's product information i.e. uses a different unit of measurement, then the baseline performance level for the specified component should be used in the WAT 01 calculator.
BRE Global is unable to provide a calculation method to convert data in to the correct unit for the WAT 01 calculator tool.
Commissioning – Monitor and specialist commissioning manager - KBCN00051
The commissioning monitor is typically a project team member who will monitor the systems commissioning and testing programme for the building. The individual may combine that role with that of the specialist commissioning manager to deal with complex systems if they have the necessary knowledge. However, if the building has several specialist systems it is unlikely that the same person would be able to carry out all of the commissioning and more than one specialist would most likely be required.
Commissioning – Role of Specialist commissioning manager - KBCN0604
The specialist commissioning manager for a complex system must be a specialist contractor and not a general sub-contractor. They must be on hand to independently verify the work carried out by whomever installs the system.
In principle, it is possible for the specialist commissioning manager to be from the same organisation as the main contractor provided any conflicts of interest have been declared and records show how they have been managed to provide confidence that commissioning will be carried out appropriately.
The separate roles of the main contractor and specialist commissioning manager are so that the installation and commissioning are carried out independently by different parties.
Communal Laundry Facilities – Domestic or Commercial Washing Machines - KBCN0613
The table provided in the manual highlights the criteria for an appliance to be considered domestic or commercial. However, for multi-residential projects (or other building types containing laundry facilities), the BREEAM assessor should use their judgement to determine whether the appliance is commercial or domestic, and justification of the category selected must be provided. For instance, commercial and domestic sized washing machines can be defined based on load size or power rating.
Communal Laundry Facilities- Commercial Sized Tumble Dryers - KBCN0555
Tumble dryers should be taken in to account when calculating the total annual unregulated energy consumption of communal laundry facilities with commercial sized appliances.
Heat recovery from a commercial sized tumble dryer exhaust can be used as an alternative to the solutions listed within the Ene 08 credit issue provided it will achieve a meaningful reduction of energy demand, and justification can be given as to why this method has been implemented over those recommended in the manual.
The list of equipment types and compliance requirements is not intended to be exhaustive, however where alternative solutions are proposed, the design team must provide justification and evidence as outlined above, to the satisfaction of the assessor.
Community transport schemes in rural areas - KBCN00013
In rural areas, where scheduled public services are insufficient to gain credits via the calculation of the Accessibility Index, community transport schemes, including 'on-demand services', can be used to achieve the 'dedicated bus service' option. In such cases evidence must be provided to demonstrate:
- It serves a rural area
- It is available to all potential users
- The service is established at the time of the assessment being submitted
- The service is of an appropriate scale for the community it serves
Content reworded to highlight the availability of the on-demand service to all potential users. 24/04/2017
Compliance: Applicability of criteria to subsequent schemes’ versions - KBCN0554
When assessing a project under a certain scheme, criteria or compliance notes from a previous scheme cannot be used to demonstrate compliance.
Compliance: Applicability of criteria to scheme’s previous versions - KBCN0430
Criteria set for a scheme version are not applicable retrospectively to previous versions.
Compliance: Conflicts of interest for the BREEAM assessor - KBCN0107
The assessor can be someone within the design team or work for the same company as the design team member(s) but the assessor must identify and manage any potential conflicts of interest. The assessor should also make BRE Global aware of the situation so that, should it prove appropriate, the certification report can be escalated to a more detailed level of quality assurance checking.
If the assessor is a member of the company who are producing evidence to demonstrate compliance, there must be clear separation of the roles and the BREEAM/HQM assessor must not be personally responsible for producing such evidence.
BREEAM/HQM is a 3rd party certification scheme. Therefore, it is important to avoid any conflicts of interest between those producing evidence and those awarding credits to ensure the robustness of the certification process.
Compliance: Manufacturer/supplier does not comply - KBCN0571
Where equipment is required to meet specific criteria to achieve compliance it is important to ensure the client seeks out manufacturers/suppliers that provide equipment which meets these criteria. If the chosen product / supplier cannot meet the criteria then the credit cannot be awarded.
BREEAM seeks to recognise the use of equipment which offers the latest sustainable solutions.
Compliance: Statutory requirements - KBCN0395
BREEAM is an assessment method which promotes best practice in sustainable buildings.
Matters critical to health and safety, as well as any mandatory requirements from statutory authorities which conflict with BREEAM criteria may take precedence over BREEAM requirements. In this instance, evidence would be required to demonstrate that this is the case.
Note, this does not change the criteria requirements, and where BREEAM requirements are not met the design team must explore alternative options or specifications if the relevant credits are to be awarded.
17/04/18 Wording amended to clarify
Compliant wheelchair and buggy storage facilities - KBCN1200
In sheltered housing or care homes and supported living facilities assessments, compliant wheelchair and buggy storage facilities are those that meet the following:
- Charging points for electric buggies (at least two) provided within the
- Storage area must be secure yet easily accessible
- Lighting of the storage facility must be compliant with the external (or
internal where relevant) lighting criteria defined in BREEAM Issue Hea 01
Visual comfort. The lighting must be controlled to avoid operation during
daylight hours, where there is sufficient daylight in or around the facility.
- Where access to and from the building main entrance needs to be tightly
controlled for the safety/security of residents, and it can be demonstrated
that compliance with points 2 and 3 above impact on this (e.g. where
residents include those with mental health problems), these two items can
be excluded from the compliance requirements.
Considerate construction – corporate registration - KBCN0905
Where credits are awarded for the assessment of the site against a compliant scheme, corporate registration, which assesses the contractor's overall operations and performance across multiple sites, is not in itself recognised.
To award considerate construction credits, BREEAM requires the assessment of the specific assessed development, in line with the criteria.
Considerate constructors exemplary criteria - KBCN0843
Where the exemplary criterion has been met, the exemplary credit will be awarded in addition to the two standard credits for considerate construction. There is no need for the assessor to demonstrate compliance with the standard credits in this case, just the exemplary one.
Considering Sand and Cement Replacements - KBCN0181
Neither sand or cement replacements should be taken into account when assessing the percentage of recycled or secondary aggregate used in a project.
The recycled aggregates issue only assesses the use of coarse aggregates.
29/03/2017 Title amended and additional reference to cement substitutes added
Contaminated Land- Presence of radon gas - KBCN0155
Naturally occurring radon is not considered as contamination in relation to BREEAM. However, where radioactive substances have been introduced as a consequence of human activities, that land would then be considered to be ‘contaminated with radioactivity’ and remediation of such contamination would fall under the scope of the relevant BREEAM issue.
Contractor not yet appointed at the design stage - KBCN000002
Where the contractor has not been engaged at the design stage certification, it is acceptable to award the credits based on a commitment. This commitment must be from a suitable member of the design team, and must detail the targets and criteria which must be met. Evidence must also confirm that the details in the commitment will form part of the contractual requirements.
Counterbalancing ratio fixed - KBCN0327
The requirement to analyse the counterbalancing ratio can be omitted if the project team can provide a statement confirming that it has been set by the manufacturer due to existing standards and to maximise efficiency. The remaining criteria must be met.
Cycle spaces – Minimum and maximum requirements - KBCN0637
These remain applicable where the 50% reduction allowed for building locations with a high level of public transport accessibility is in effect.
This means that, for instance, a large retail will still need to provide at least ten customer cycle storage spaces and could meet compliance with a maximum of fifty.
18.05.2017 Previous KBCN on large retail adapted to include any minimum requirement for cycle storage spaces.
Cycle spaces – Compliant types of storage - KBCN0257
Due to the number of different types of cycle storage facility available and the variation in site conditions, BREEAM New Construction is less prescriptive about the dimensions and type of cycle parking which can be used to demonstrate compliance. The Assessor is expected to exercise their professional judgement to determine whether the cycle parking spaces meet the aims of the Issue and the requirements listed in the compliance notes.
BREEAM is used to certify buildings, not products. Cycle parking systems cannot, therefore, be considered inherently 'BREEAM compliant'. These must be assessed in context with reference to their location and the intended user profile.
Cycle spaces – Folding bicycles and scooters - KBCN00024
The provision of cycle storage that is only suitable for folding bicycles or scooters is not compliant.
Providing reduced storage space for folding bicycles or scooters in place of compliant cycle storage may limit future travel options
14 03 2018 Wording clarified and reference to scooters included.
Cycle spaces – Large retail - KBCN0528
For large retail developments that provide at least 50 customer cycle storage spaces, this meets the requirement for customer spaces. The requirement of one cycling space every 10 staff needs to be met in addition to this.
Cycle spaces – Prominent location - KBCN00053
The requirement to provide cycle storage facilities in a prominent location on site, within view of building users, is intended to encourage use through advertising their presence to building users. Providing these facilities inside the assessed building, such as in the basement, may be compliant so long as there is prominent signage to indicate their location to all building users.
Cycle spaces – Provision for extensions - KBCN0707
When assessing an extension to a building, partial refurbishment or a stand-alone building, which extends an existing facility to be occupied by the same building users (such as a classroom block in an existing school), a site-wide approach should be used to determine the number of new, compliant cycle spaces required.
In such instances a stand-alone approach cannot generally ensure that the new cycle spaces for the assessed extension would be dedicated and available to the occupants of the assessed extension, refurbishment or building. This can only be used where it can be demonstrated that the use of the new cycle storage can be effectively restricted to only those using the assessed extension, either by effective positioning and or management.
Cycle spaces – Provision for regular, large visitor numbers - KBCN0546
Where there are large numbers of visitors on a regular basis, provision of cycle storage for visitors should be based on the maximum number at any given time.
This is to ensure that at peak times enough cycle storage is provided.
Cycle spaces – Similar buildings assessments - KBCN0570
Where cycle storage and/or facilities are provided for individual units, a site-wide approach cannot be used to include all units. If, however, these are a shared facility, provided in a suitably-located communal area, this may be acceptable.
When assessing using the 'similar buildings' approach, each of the similar buildings has to be assessed separately and credits have to be awarded, based on the worst performing building.
14 03 2018 Clarified to account for suitable shared facilities
Cycle spaces – Small retail – multiple units - KBCN0187
In a development of multiple small retail units, to achieve credit, 10 compliant cycle storage spaces in total are required where it can be shown that these are accessible to all units. However, where such developments consist of multiple units over a large area or are separated by barriers such as roads, the assessor should ensure that the provision is both adequate and conveniently located for all units.
The 50% reduction allowed for building locations with a high level of public transport accessibility is not applicable in this case.
17/11/2016 Note related to the 50% reduction added.
14/03/2018 Note added regarding multiple units over a large area or separated by barriers.
Cycle spaces – Timing of installation in phased projects - KBCN00015
Where cycle storage cannot be installed at construction stage, due to phasing and / or pending demolition works, compliance may still be demonstrated provided:
- Clarification and justification is given for why the storage is not currently available.
- A written contractual agreement is in place to provide BREEAM compliant storage within a clear timescale.
- Alternative storage is provided in the meantime that allow bikes to be easily stored and removed, with the ability to be locked securely against a fixed structure.
The methodology above applies to cycle storage only, and cannot be applied to provision of cyclist facilities (such as showers and lockers) which must be assessed as normal.
This is to allow flexibility within the project programme for the installation of the final, permanent BREEAM-compliant cycle storage whilst still ensuring adequate cycle storage is available during the construction phase.
Cycle spaces and facilities – Rounding calculations - KBCN0445
The calculation for the required cycle spaces and facilities must always be rounded up. If the calculation works out as 5.3 cycle spaces, 6 cycle spaces must be provided.
To determine the requirements for developments with multiple types of building user, calculate the requirement for each user group separately (rounding up to the determine the number of spaces) and then add the number of cycle spaces for each user group together.
04/10/2018 Wording amended to clarify the correct calculation method for developments with multiple user groups.
Cycle Storage – Electric cycle charging stations - KBCN1238
Electric charging stations can be considered as compliant, provided they also meet the criteria for cycle storage spaces.
However, where these are dedicated spaces, (ie they are not available for non-electric cycles), these should not constitute more than 10% of the provision required for compliance.
Cyclist safe access - KBCN0188
Safe access for cyclists must be via a compliant cycle lane, unless it is demonstrated that it would be impractical to cycle for a short distance between the site entrance and cycle storage. For example, where a gate, door or barrier forces the cyclist to dismount and walk for a short distance to access the cycle storage and it would be impractical for cyclists to re-mount.
Where it is not practical to provide compliant cycle lane from the entrance to the cycle storage, the safety of cyclists and pedestrians must be maintained.
21/02/2020 Re-worded to clarify the intent
02 Jul 2021 - Applicability to UK NC2018 confirmed
Cyclists’ facilities – Adequately sized lockers - KBCN0961
The requirement for adequately sized lockers is so that cyclists have a dedicated space to store their cycling equipment and clothes. It is not compliant for the space requirement to be met by providing two or more inadequately-sized lockers for each cyclist.
Requiring cyclists to separate their equipment into different lockers/storage spaces could create a barrier to uptake of commuting by bicycle.
Cyclists’ facilities – Combining different facilities - KBCN0683
Cyclists' facilities can be combined, provided that all relevant compliance requirements are met. For example, compliant showers can be combined with compliant lockers in one room, subject to the principle below.
For combined facilities to count as multiple facilities, they must be capable of being used independently of each other at the same time with reference to any space requirements, access, gender and privacy issues.
Cyclists’ facilities – Multi-residential / residential institutions - KBCN0967
Where there is a BREEAM requirement for residents, compliant facilities within their accommodation can be considered as cyclists' facilities. Separate facilities for staff must be provided as required to achieve compliance.
Cyclists’ facilities – Provision of only one shower - KBCN0566
Where only one shower is provided, this needs to cater for users of both genders.
For a changing facility to count as an additional amenity, it must be capable of being used independently of any showers, otherwise it could not be considered as two facilities.
A shower which is a mixed gender facility must be capable of being used privately. As such, it requires adequate private changing space associated with it.
Amended to provide further clarification and to add the general principle.
Cyclists’ facilities – Shell only/shell & core assessments - KBCN0882
Cycle parking must be provided as part of the base-build for all assessment types.
Where compliance is sought for additional cyclists’ facilities, the developer should provide all aspects of the installation which fall within the scope of their work and facilitate the future completion of any aspects which do not.
For shell & core assessments, if additional facilities, such as showers and drying space, are not provided in core areas and internal walls are not provided to tenanted areas, these must be indicated on design drawings and all relevant services provided. This would include capped-off supplies and electrical points as necessary in order to facilitate the completion of the compliant facilities by the tenant.
The developer should do as much as they can, within the scope of their work, to facilitate the future installation of compliant facilities and should not do anything which would make future installation more onerous.
25/05/2018 - Wording amended to clarify the intent.
Cyclists’ facilities – Shower provision for male and female users - KBCN0536
Where a deviation from the guidance for a 50:50 split can be fully justified, (for example, based on actual occupancy data from a similar development of the same building type) this can be deemed as compliant by the assessor.
If such justification cannot be provided but design teams wish to provide a flexible arrangement for showers to suit the anticipated building occupancy, providing unisex showers accessible to all building users would be acceptable.
Cyclists’ facilities – Within toilet facilities - KBCN00050
To comply with the criteria for cyclist facilities, showers should not obstruct the use of other facilities. Where a shower is located in a room with a WC, this cannot be considered compliant, unless it can be unequivocally demonstrated that the WC is provided over-and-above the requirements of relevant standards or regulations for general and disabled WCs.
To ensure that there is no conflict between the use of general or disabled WCs and the use of cyclist facilities.
25.10.18 KBCN reworded to improve clarity.
Daylighting – Changing rooms - KBCN1132
The daylighting criteria are not applicable to changing rooms.
Daylighting – Floor areas for average daylight calculations - KBCN0471
Where the room size is comparable and the function is the same, such as ‘kitchen’, the percentage rule needs to be applied to the total floor area. As the average daylight factor is a measure of daylight across the whole room, only whole rooms can be compliant. This is why we refer to rounding up the ‘80% of the floor area’ requirement to the rounded-up number of compliant rooms.
This rule applies to rooms of a similar size and function and compliance note ‘percentage of assessed area’ includes a simple example, where all the rooms are the same size. However, this rule can still be applied to rooms of different sizes.
Spaces whose size is substantially larger should meet the average daylight factor requirement on their own. In these cases, the percentage requirement is still applicable to the floor area of the remaining rooms.
For example, where 80% of ‘teaching, lecture and seminar spaces’ need to comply with the average daylight factor, if we have a large lecture theatre of 200m2
and 3 seminar spaces of 30m2
each, the requirements for 80% would mean 232m2
of the floor area need to comply. This would require the lecture theatre and two seminar spaces to comply.
Where a building contains different area types, the 80% minimum floor area must be calculated by each separate building area type as defined in the table listing the average daylight factors required. For example, a multi-residential building that contains kitchen areas and living room areas, would need each one of these areas to comply with the 80% minimum floor area requirement separately.
In schemes where dwellings are assessed separately, this is likely to result in 100% of the relevant dwelling areas complying. This is because in a typical house with one kitchen and one living room, an 80% requirement for the kitchen and an 80% requirement for the living room, would mean the whole kitchen and the whole living room need to comply (since only whole rooms can be compliant).
Clarifications and example added.
Daylighting – retail cafe / dining areas - KBCN0968
Customer seating/dining areas in a cafe or restaurant should be considered as 'sales areas'. Sales counters, staff areas or food preparation areas, for example, should be assessed as 'Other occupied areas' in accordance with the definition of 'Occupied space'..
The requirements for 'Sales areas' are applied to transient spaces.
Dedicated cycle paths in the absence of cycle facilities - KBCN00039
Safe cycle access needs to be provided even if there are no dedicated cycle facilities. The dedicated cycle paths will generally need to be provided to the main entrance(s) of the building along routes likely to be used by cyclists through the site. The design team are required to determine what is required to satisfy the intent of the criteria.
Cycle access and cyclists' facilities are assessed independently of each other. Building users may cycle even if the building does not have cycle storage facilities and so safe and secure access to and from the building must be provided.
Deemed to comply solutions – alternative proposals - KBCN1214
The solutions listed for each category in the Table are examples deemed to comply with the requirements, without further justification or calculations to demonstrate a meaningful reduction in unregulated energy consumption.
If an alternative solution is proposed, justification and/or calculations are required to demonstrate this.
Definition – Critical value - KBCN1006
Critical value aims to maximise whole life value
of the building based on client requirements, and differs from minimising life cycle cost. This is a more specific analysis of how the building's ongoing maintenance and operation can impact business needs. For instance:
- Where any disruption to business is costly, a specification with long periods between maintenance cycles and reduced maintenance time may be desirable.
- Where maintaining aesthetics are important, a maintenance cycle may be based on aesthetic upkeep rather than functional lifespan.
- Where maximum recyclability and re-usability is important, an alternative, costlier specification may be required.
- Where capital costs are constrained, the specification with the lowest LCC may not be affordable, and instead, the best available option within the budget is chosen.
Definition – Project value - KBCN0552
The term ‘project value’ represents the total project cost, which includes all costs such as construction, design, land acquisition, etc.
Demand-based bus services in AI calculation - KBCN1338
Demand-based bus services operated by public transport providers can be included in the calculation of the Accessibility Index. The project team will need to determine an average number of stops per hour to allow input into the AI tool.
Demolition records not available - KBCN1009
Where demolition records are missing, either wholly or in part, the credit available for diversion of construction and demolition waste from landfill cannot be achieved. This includes instances where demolition was conducted under a separate contract or by a third party on behalf of the developer.
Design team meetings via conference call - KBCN0201
Design team meetings can be conducted via conference calls.
It can be difficult for design team members to be in the same place at the same time. Conference calls are a more sustainable way to conduct meetings.
District cooling systems - KBCN0759
Where a district cooling facility is servicing the assessed building, the building will have an environmental impact in terms of refrigerants, albeit in this case indirectly. As such the district cooling system must be considered against the BREEAM criteria for refrigerants.
Where connection to an off-site district cooling system, over which the developer has no control, is mandated by a local authority or other statutory body, the maximum number of credits can be awarded for Issue Pol 01. However, where this is not mandatory and the developer has the option whether to connect, regardless of encouragement or incentives by the local authority, the district cooling system must be considered against the BREEAM criteria for refrigerants to award the credits.
27/04/2017: Clarified the number of credits awarded
District heating systems - KBCN0979
Where a district heating facility is servicing
the assessed building, the building will have an environmental impact in terms of emissions, albeit in this case indirectly. As such the district heating system must be considered against the BREEAM criteria for NOx emissions.
Where connection to an off-site district heating system, over which the developer has no control, is mandated by a local authority or other statutory body, the maximum number of credits available, depending on building type, can be awarded for this Issue. However, where this is not mandatory and the developer has the option whether to connect, regardless of encouragement or incentives, to award the credits the district heating system must be assessed against the BREEAM criteria.
07/12/17 Reference to NOx emissions clarified
District heating systems which off-set grid electricity - KBCN0857
District heating systems which incinerate waste usually have NOx emissions higher than the levels set to achieve any BREEAM credits.
However, where a district heating system also generates electricity, this can be used to off-set NOx emissions from grid electricity. In such cases, the calculation methodology for CHP systems can be used to calculate NOx emissions for the district heating network.
Domestic hot water supplied by a circulation loop - KBCN1017
Where a circulation loop is used on the domestic hot water supply, it is acceptable to only sub-meter the cold water supply.
Sub-metering such systems may be impractical and the occupant can use the cold water meter readings as a proxy for overall water usage in relevant areas.
Drying space in hotel/ hostel projects - KBCN0174
The Drying space issue is not applicable to projects where occupancy is transient, such as hotel or hostel type developments, but does apply to long term residential buildings.
There is little potential in reducing the energy from drying clothes in hotel and hostel bedrooms compared to long term residential buildings.
Ecological enhancements – large mixed use/multi-building developments - KBCN0588
At the Post Construction stage of assessment, for large mixed use/multi-building developments, where the whole site has not been completed and ecological enhancements have not yet been added, or where features are being added at a later date in an appropriate planting season: evidence from the client or principal contractor confirming planting will be completed within 18 months from completion of the development is acceptable.
Ecological value – timing of planting - KBCN0479
Where the 18 month deadline for the completion of the planting is likely to be exceeded due to the timing or phasing of the construction, the project team will need to clearly justify the reason for this variation, and provide a written commitment to carry out the planting within a reasonable and justifiable timescale.
Education – Different age ranges and/or non-acute SEN - KBCN0224
For a combined school campus the number of cycle storage spaces and compliant facilities will need to be calculated individually for each user-group of the building; e.g. the number of facilities for nursery schools, primary schools and secondary schools should be calculated as per the criteria defined for each of these education types and totalled.
Where this includes non-acute SEN facilities and the unusual structure of the classes prevents standard assessment, the assessor should use their judgement to determine whether to apply the pre-school criteria or base on the total number of staff and students.
While within the scoring and reporting tool the dominant education building type category will be selected, calculations need to be provided as supporting evidence, with the assessor's comments/notes used to clarify the calculation used to demonstrate compliance.
14 03 2018 - clarified and key information incorporated from KBCN0424
Education – Secondary schools - KBCN0119
Cycle parking spaces may be shared between students and staff, and are calculated based on the total number of staff and students as per the technical guidance.
Compliance for students can be based on the provision of compliant lockers only based on the following logic:
• Where secondary schools have sports facilities, compliance shall be based on the provision of compliant lockers only. The provision of showers or changing spaces is assumed to be included with the sports facilities are do not need to be assessed.
• Where secondary schools do not have sports facilities, cyclist facilities are assessed as per the technical guidance.
Secondary schools will, in almost all cases, will already have sports facilities including enough showers and adequate changing facilities to meet the BREEAM requirements by default. For most students however, the most important facility is likely to be adequate locker storage rather than showers or changing facilities.
Separate shower and changing facilities must be provided for staff. Locker facilities may be shared with students if appropriate, but staff lockers should be suitably located in relation to the other staff facilities.
The number of showers for staff should be based on the total number of staff and one shower for every 100 staff*, subject to a minimum of one shower being provided.
*This is based on 1 cycle storage space per 10 staff, and 1 shower per 10 cycle storage spaces.
10 03 2020 Further clarification of the intent
14 03 2018 Heading and wording clarified
Electric recharging stations availability - KBCN1128
This option requires the number of electric vehicle recharging stations (EVCS) to be based on a percentage of the total car parking for the building.
To meet compliance, the intent is that recharging stations be available to all building users, including customers and visitors. However, where overall parking numbers are low, it may be difficult to effectively distribute the EV charging spaces between general users and priority groups.
In such cases, the design team must provide evidence that this aspect has been considered when locating the EV spaces, however, the decision on how to distribute these may be made by the client or, for speculative development, by an appropriate member of the design team.
In situations where parking is limited to priority spaces only, the above guidance still applies.
17/09/21 - Updated to allow more flexibility in relation to how EV spaces are allocated
Electric vehicle charging spaces (EVCS) – Priority spaces - KBCN1429
The current criteria for EVCS do not address provision for priority spaces, such as those allocated to disabled use and car sharing.
The assessor and design team should, therefore, take a pragmatic approach to this and, where the overall number of required EVCS permits, an appropriate proportion of these should be provided for priority spaces. This will not be deemed as 'double-counting' as the number of EVCS required should be considered independently of other requirements.
The intent is that electric vehicle charging spaces are available to all building users (where possible).
Electric vehicle charging stations - KBCN0684
As per the 'Alternative transport measures' criteria, the percentage requirement for electric charging stations should be based on the total car parking capacity for the building.
Where the assessment covers only part of a building or development this must be based on the total car parking capacity unless the parking for the assessed development is clearly segregated and available only for the use of its building users.
23 03 17 Reference to car sharing spaces removed. See also KBCN0282
Electric vehicle charging stations – shell & core assessments - KBCN1247
For shell & core and partially-fitted residential developments, compliance can be demonstrated by installing all the necessary infrastructure, (i.e. capacity in the connection to the local electricity distribution network and distribution board, as well as sub-surface ductwork to receive cabling to parking spaces), to enable the simple installation and activation of charging points at a future date.
15/11/2019 Incorrect reference to pre-installation of 'cabling' removed.
Emergency lighting - KBCN0185
Maintained systems featuring emergency light fittings which are also used for normal operation, are assessed for this issue. Non-maintained lighting which is only activated in an emergency can be excluded from the assessment.
The aim of this credit is to encourage and recognise external energy-efficient fittings. Non-maintained emergency lighting will very rarely be activated and in such extremes the emergency requirements must not be compromised.
Emissions – measuring heating demand - KBCN0182
Emissions for all heat sources should be measured under normal operating conditions which are when all heat sources from the building plant are operating to their maximum design heat outputs to meet the building's heating demands.
Where plant is designed to operate below maximum capacity, for example multiple or modular systems or standby boilers,the emissions should still be calculated for the plant operating to meet the building’s heating demand. Any redundant capacity or standby plant should not be included.
Energy efficient laboratories – scope - KBCN1254
This Issue is also applicable to 'Offices with Research and development areas' and other buildings with research and development facilities that contain laboratory space and containment devices/areas.
Technical manual to be updated accordingly in next reissue.
Energy performance assessment for part of a whole building - KBCN0596
If the assessment is only covering part of a whole building, the energy performance assessment must be representative of the part of the building being assessed. Simply taking the energy performance assessment of the whole building would not therefore comply, especially if the non-assessed parts of the building were of a different use. A separate energy assessment of the part of the building is likely to be required.
The energy performance assessment must be representative of the parts of the building being assessed.
This also applies to the predicted energy performance and all energy modelling for the prediction of operation energy consumption.
Amended 01/09/2020 to cover UKNC2018 - Prediction of operational energy consumption
Energy sub-metering – Single occupancy & function - KBCN0491
In large buildings of single occupancy/tenancy where there is only one homogeneous function (e.g. hotel bedrooms, offices), sub-metering should be provided per floor plate.
Environmental management – no principal contractor - KBCN1213
In order to achieve compliance where there is no principal contractor, the criteria must be met by the party which fulfills an equivalent role in managing the construction.
The intent of the criteria is to ensure that the site is managed in accordance with demonstrably sustainable principles by the party having overall control of site management and operations.
Environmental management – Timing of obtaining ISO 14001/EMAS certification - KBCN0229
The contractor must be in possession of the ISO 14001/EMAS certification prior to starting works on the development under assessment.
This is to ensure that the aim of the issue, to ‘encourage construction sites managed in an environmentally sound manner’, can be achieved. To uphold the robustness of BREEAM, the date of certification to ISO 14001/EMAS must be prior to initial works starting on the site.
EPDs’ validity - KBCN0798
EPDs which have expired or are pending verification at the time the relevant product was specified, cannot contribute to awarding credits. However, it is not necessary that they are valid at the time of the design or post-construction stage submissions.
BREEAM is primarily trying to encourage designers to take EPDs into consideration when specifying products.
04/11/2019 Confirmed applicability to UK NC2018
27/03/2020 Added applicability to Green Guide ratings and ISO 14001 certificates
27/05/2020 Reference to ISO 14001 removed - Whilst the same principle applies, the wording relating to product specification does not - See KBCN1401.
12/08/2021 Clarification regarding the validity of EPDs during QA submission and removal of reference to Green Guide ratings
Evacuation lifts - KBCN0437
Evacuation lifts, which will be used during an emergency only, can be excluded from the relevant BREEAM criteria. However, if these lifts are used during the normal operation of the building, then they still need to be assessed.
Evidence: Final design/’as-built’ drawings as evidence - KBCN0393
Where drawings are not clearly marked to indicate their 'as-built' status, additional evidence would need to be provided by the design team to confirm the drawings represent the completed development and that there have been no changes relevant to the BREEAM/HQM assessment. This could, for example, be a written confirmation from the architect or the contractor, as appropriate.
Evidence: Post construction assessment evidence - KBCN0407
For the purposes of robustness and completeness, both design AND post-construction stage evidence is required for a post construction assessment. However, it is possible to provide only post construction stage (PCS) evidence where it is clear that this completely supersedes the design stage (DS) evidence and renders it unnecessary.
Excluding applications from assessment - KBCN0875
Where a structural engineer has determined that recycled or secondary aggregate cannot be used in line with the criteria for a particular application, or where they will not allow the minimum BREEAM level to be used, that application can be excluded from the assessment. Where the engineer allows some content to be used, this percentage must still be specified in the excluded application. The engineer's decision must be suitably justified (for example following the BS8500 series and associated standards) and must be provided as evidence for the BREEAM assessment.
Excluding excavation waste from ‘Diversion of resources from landfill’ - KBCN0226
Excavation waste should not be included and assessed against the requirements under ‘Diversion of resources from landfill’.
This also applies to BREEAM Communities RE05 - 3rd/4th credits.
Existing materials recycled on site - KBCN0813
When existing elements are recycled (ie crushed and used as aggregate) on site, they can contribute to awarding credits as recycled aggregates.
This issue aims to recognise and encourage the use of recycled and secondary aggregates and addresses waste rather than materials. It refers to recycled aggregate obtained on-site or off-site, based on materials identified as waste and removed during construction works.
Previous incorrect KBCN text amended. CN 'Aggregates in existing applications' to be amended accordingly in next reissue of the RFO Technical manuals.
Extending a lift shaft - KBCN0802
Where the scope of works regarding a lift only includes extending the lift shaft to other floors, then assessment of this lift is not appropriate. Where changes are made to the lift system, then assessment is required.
Where changes to lift systems are made, these lifts need to be included in the assessment to encourage specification of energy efficient transport systems.
Extension using existing building services - KBCN0914
When assessing an extension, which is served by existing building plant, the existing plant, should be considered as contributing to the existing pre-development background noise level. Any additional plant or changes to the operation of the existing plant should be considered as a new noise source.
This Issue seeks to address any increase in background noise levels which result from the assessed development.
22/02/2018 Wording amended to clarify how existing plant should be considered
Existing building services serving a building extension have to be included in the assessment of this issue.
Issue Pol 05 is applicable to all treated buildings, even where existing building services are used for an extension building, without being upgraded. The issue assesses the impact on any nearby noise-sensitive buildings of existing and newly specified plant and the effectiveness of any fabric measures to reduce this.
External lighting – architectural façade lighting - KBCN0650
Architectural façade (or other decorative) lighting, which does not provide users with lighting to perform tasks outdoors, does not need to be included in the assessment of external lighting.
This Issue seeks to ensure that lighting levels are appropriate for tasks which building users will be undertaking outdoors.
External lighting – High frequency ballasts - KBCN0278
The requirement for all fluorescent and compact fluorescent lamps to be fitted with high frequency ballasts does not apply to external lighting.
External lighting inside wider building - KBCN0906
Where a building undergoing assessment is located inside of another building, for example a retail unit within a shopping centre, Ene 03 External lighting and Pol 04 Reduction of night time light pollution should be assessed as follows;
'External lighting' that is inside of the wider building, using the example above the lighting is external of the retail unit itself but inside of the wider shopping centre, criteria relating to the luminous efficacy should be applied as presented within the manual. For the criteria relating to controlled for prevention of operation during daylight hours and presence detection in areas of intermittent pedestrian traffic, however, instead of demonstrating that the lighting is not operational during daylight hours, it should be demonstrated that the lighting is not operational outside of the operational hours of the wider shopping centre. Any external lighting within the scope of works being assessed that is located outside of the wider shopping centre, for example if the retail unit had an entrance or exit that leads on to the street outside, this would need to be assessed against the criteria presented within the manual.
If the building undergoing assessment has no external lighting that is outside of the wider building, it can be considered that the building has no external lighting. However, as above, any external lighting within the scope of works of the assessment that is located outside of the wider building will need to be assessed as the criteria is presented within the manual.
10/05/2019 Reference to specific criteria numbers removed and made applicable to UK NC2018
External works – waste reporting requirements - KBCN1379
Waste arising from external works does not need to be included within the calculations for construction resource efficiency. To do so would be incongruous with reporting waste relative to the building's floor area. This follows the logic of excluding excavation waste from this criterion.
However, waste from external works should be addressed in the RMP and should also be reported in the calculations for the Diversion of resources from landfill credit, which is not reported relative to the building's floor area.
Fabric testing and inspection in hot climates - KBCN0790
The requirements for thermographic survey and air tightness testing are applicable to both, cold and hot climates. A suitably qualified professional will advise on the appropriate testing conditions and specific methods in order to address this issue in different climatic conditions.
Building fabric air tightness is important in different climates in order to ensure than no additional energy is consumed due to increased heating or cooling demand originating from the lack of integrity of the building fabric.
Facilities provision for public bicycle sharing systems - KBCN0276
Where a public bicycle sharing system is being used to account for up to 50% of cycle spaces provided, the total number of cycle spaces, including those provided by the bicycle sharing system, should be the basis on which the compliant cyclist facilities are provided.
This is because people using public cycle spaces will still need the use of cyclist facilities such as showers and lockers
13.08.2018 KBCN applied to the BREEAM In-Use scheme.
Feasibility study – comparison with connection to existing LZCs - KBCN0563
In carrying out a feasibility study (covering all the areas required as stated in the manual) the primary intent is to demonstrate to a reasonable level of certainty that the chosen LZC is the most appropriate of all those available.
Some of the options (for example community heating/cooling schemes) may not allow for a simple like for like comparison but a comparison can be made overall across many factors. For example in a community heating scheme the life cycle costing estimate might need to be simply the cost of using and maintaining the system for the measuring period, if upfront costs and payback period information is not available. Similarly for an existing community scheme, planning would not be a barrier but land use and noise impacts could be compared.
The feasibility study must include a comparison of all criteria and for it to show that each has been factored into the final option being made. While some options may provide information in different formats and differing levels of detail making direct comparisons not straightforward, a comparison can still be made and this should aim to be as comprehensive and representative as possible. This will serve to demonstrate with reasonable certainty that the chosen option is the most appropriate.
Fire hydrants and sprinklers - KBCN0680
To meet BREEAM compliance, emergency systems such as fire hydrants and sprinklers need also to be covered by a leak detection system.
The leak detection system must cover all mains water supply between and within the building and the ‘site boundary'.
Flood risk – Site situated across numerous flood zones - KBCN0532
Where a site is situated across more than one flood zone, the flood zone with the highest probability of flooding, i.e. the worst case scenario, must be considered for the purpose of the BREEAM assessment. An exception to this would be where the areas in the higher probability zone include only soft landscaping and it can be demonstrated that access to the building will be maintained in a flooding event.
This is to ensure that the site has adequately managed the worst case scenario level of flood risk associated with the site's location.
07/03/2018 Updated to include circumstances where an exception may apply.
Flow control devices for multiple blocks - KBCN1186
The criteria are set to encourage isolation of the water supply to each WC block when it is not being used. If a single flow control device, for example one programmed time controller, is adequate to switch the water on at predetermined times that suit the usage patterns of more than one WC blocks or facilities, this can be used to demonstrate compliance.
Please note that if only one timed controller is used for a large area/number of facilities, the assessor must justify that this is appropriate to the usage patterns within the building and confirm that multiple timers would be redundant (i.e. they would all be set to the same time). Consideration should be given of any facilities that may be open longer than others, requiring these timers to be programmed differently in different areas.
As long as the aim of the credit (‘to reduce the impact of water leaks that may otherwise go undetected’) can be achieved through the specification of an appropriate number of flow control devices, the credit may still be achieved if timers cover more than one WC area/facility to prevent minor water leaks.
Flow control devices on rainwater supply for toilets - KBCN0868
Flow control devices will be required on water supplied from rainwater and serving the toilet facilities. Rainwater tanks are topped up by mains water and leaks could reduce levels of stored water and hence increase the use of mains water.
The leak detection requirements apply to all relevant water systems, regardless of the water source.
Flow control on cold water supply - KBCN0417
A shut-off on the cold water supply to the whole WC facility provides a simple and effective way of reducing potential water loss.
Taps which contain built in shut-off valves will not prevent any water leaks from the supply to the tap and so do not fulfil this intent.
The intent of the flow control criteria is to prevent minor water leaks occurring within the pipework of WC facilities.
Flow rate for ‘click’ taps - KBCN0543
The flow rate for click taps should be taken as the maximum flow rate, as quoted by the manufacturer, of the lower range before the water break or 'click'.
All water consumption is based on 'typical' use patterns and it is assumed that most operations of 'click' taps will be at the lower level.
Flow rate for a mixture of taps - KBCN0173
Whichever is the higher of the 'average flow rate' or the 'proportionate flow rate' should be used within the Wat 01 Calculator.
Flow restrictors - KBCN0976
If a flow restrictor can be demonstrated to effectively reduce the flow of water and it is integral to the fitting or supply pipework (ie not easily removed by the building occupant), this can be accounted for in calculations for this Issue.
Such devices must be fit-for-purpose. Proprietary flow restrictors, therefore partly-closed isolation valves, for example, are not an acceptable solution.
Formaldehyde / VOC levels exceed prescribed limits - KBCN0258
If the measured formaldehyde / VOC concentrations were above the prescribed limits, the appropriate remedial action must be taken, as described in the IAQ Plan. The criterion requires confirmation of 'the measures that have or will be undertaken' however it does not specifically address re-testing. We would expect, however that the IAQ Plan should outline what remedial measures are appropriate depending upon the severity and type of the non-compliance with prescribed limits. Such measures may include re-testing as a matter of 'best practice'.
Where levels are found to exceed these limits, the project team confirms the measures that have, or will be undertaken in accordance with the IAQ plan, to reduce the TVOC and formaldehyde levels to within the above limits.
Freestanding commercial fridges and freezers - KBCN0577
Freestanding commercial fridges and freezers must be included in the assessment of the Pol 01 issue, even when they are not connected to the building cooling system. Only domestic white goods are excluded from the assessment of this issue.
FSC Controlled Wood - KBCN00054
FSC Controlled Wood is a system developed to ensure that the non-certified portion in products labelled as Mixed Sources do not come from unwanted sources. It is not an FSC certification on its own and products classed as FSC Controlled Wood do not meet the BREEAM definition of responsibly sourced.
Future transport nodes - KBCN0966
Where a transport node is currently inactive but will become active soon after project completion, it can be included when calculating the existing AI.
To demonstrate this, confirmation of the start of service date and service frequency from the appropriate public transport authority or company will be required.
Glare control – adjacent buildings - KBCN1211
It is acceptable to account for surrounding buildings, structures or other permanent environmental features when using simulation modelling to assess the risk of glare, provided this accounts for both direct sunlight and reflected glare from glazing or reflective surfaces.
Glare control – blackout blinds - KBCN0447
Blackout blinds can be used to meet the glare control requirements.
Where the criteria set an upper limit for transmittance value, but no lower limit, blackout blinds will meet this requirement.
Glare Control – no relevant areas - KBCN0429
If the scope of the assessment does not include any relevant building areas, as defined within the manual, the criteria for Glare Control can be considered as met by default.
Only spaces that fall within the definition of relevant areas and are within the assessment's scope need to be assessed.
22/06/17 Wording clarified
16/06/17 KBCN amended to exclude content of KBCN0146.
Glare control – no windows in relevant areas - KBCN0146
Where a ‘relevant area’ as defined in the manual does not include any windows, the glare control criteria can considered as met for this area.
Note that the view out and daylight criteria would not be achieved in rooms with no windows.
Where there are no windows in a room there would be no potential for disabling glare, so the aim of the credit would be achieved.
Glare control – residential institution and multi-residential bedrooms - KBCN0666
Assuming that occupants are generally elsewhere during daylight hours, lighting and resultant glare are not considered to be problematic for bedrooms in residential institution and multi-residential assessments.
The only exception to this is where designated additional office working space is provided. In these circumstances it is the role of the assessor to determine if individual spaces should be determined as 'relevant building areas' in accordance with guidance provided.
Glare control criteria apply to building areas where lighting and resultant glare could be problematic for users.
Glare control – transmittance value - KBCN0709
Transmittance values should be based on those quoted for 'visible light' or 'optical transmittance'.
10 Mar 2021 Reference to 'optical transmittance' added for clarity
Glare control – use of tinted windows - KBCN0862
Solar control or 'tinted' glazing could potentially support the attainment of this requirement. However, the assessor must be satisfied and provide evidence to demonstrate that the particular glazing type, when used on the assessed building for a given location, is meeting this overarching aim of preventing disabling glare. It should be noted that whilst certain types of glazing, such as low emissivity glazing, may be slightly tinted, they may not necessarily be effective in reducing disabling glare.
For facades receiving direct sunlight, tinted windows alone are unlikely to be sufficient in the majority of situations.
Glare control for roof lights - KBCN0319
Where roof lights are present, they must be considered when demonstrating that the glare control strategy provides adequate control/measures for minimising glare in that space.
All sources of glare need to be considered when designing out the potential for disabling glare.
Glare control in residential areas - KBCN00040
Glare control criteria apply to building areas such as study bedrooms or facility management offices, where work or study will be carried out and where glare would hinder such activities. It does not apply to other residential areas.
Granular fill and capping - KBCN1378
Granular fill and capping only refers to roadworks and not building foundations.
Greenfield/Brownfield site – Definition - KBCN1259
For the purposes of this Issue, the following definitions apply:
A site which has never been built on, includes minimal development or which has been substantially cleared of all buildings and associated fixed surface infrastructure* and has subsequently remained undisturbed for five years or more.
* Typically, the site includes less than 5% residual development by area.
This supersedes the definition of 'Greenfield' for this Issue in the technical manual.
Any site which does not fall within the above definition of 'Greenfield site'
Head-end systems for smart meters - KBCN0933
As the central component in an Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), head end systems allow data communication and collation from a large and disparate set of smart meters.
Where smart energy meters and sub-meters are to be installed, a head-end system is required for any strategy utilising this technology to be considered for compliance.
Heat pumps powered by renewable energy - KBCN0422
Where renewable energy is used partially to offset grid electricity in heat pumps, this can contribute towards a reduction in equivalent NOx emissions. To account for seasonal variations in renewable energy generation, this must be calculated over the course of a year.
Home composting facilities – clarification - KBCN0927
Home composting facilities are individual composting containers placed within the kitchen area or communal space for each self-contained dwelling, bedsit or communal kitchen.
These containers are either emptied into local on-site communal facilities or are collected by composting collection services run by the waste collection authority.
Individual composting containers should be:
- Located in a dedicated, non-obstructive position.
- Easily accessible to all users.
- Durable, low maintenance and cleanable.
- Enclosed to manage odour and pest issues.
Impact of refrigerant – Refrigerants with low GWP - KBCN1472
Where the only refrigerant used has a GWP of ≤10, the Pol 01 calculator does not have to be completed. In such cases, evidence of the systems and the refrigerant used will be sufficient to demonstrate compliance and to award maximum credits for Impact of refrigerant.
Inclusive and accessible design (non-residential only) - KBCN0863
Shared and accessible facilities are applicable where relevant.
For office, retail and industrial buildings, if there are no spaces suitable to be shared with members of the public or community, this can be justified and the ‘inclusive and accessible design’ credit met by demonstrating compliance with the other criteria.
Commercial buildings are unlikely to provide spaces that are suitable to be shared with members of the public/community.
Independent consultation and engagement - KBCN0366
Where the person/company responsible for writing the consultation plan is also responsible for the independent facilitation of the consultation and engagement process, they must:
- be from a company independent of the development
- not have another role on the project team
This means they must not be directly involved in the detailed design of the development such as the architect.
Being independent from the development and not having another role within the project team means that they can be considered as being independent.
Having someone who is knowledgeable about the consultation will also likely improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the consultation process and its facilitation.
Individual and shared drying facilities in larger developments - KBCN0260
Individual bedrooms: an adequate internal or external space with posts and footings, or fixings capable of holding:
This is to avoid over-provision of shared drying facilities in larger developments.
- Two metres of drying line per bedroom where drying facilities are provided in each room, OR;
- Two metres of drying line per bedroom for the first 30 bedrooms, plus one metre of drying line for each additional bedroom where drying facilities are shared.
Indoor air quality plan - KBCN0294
The Indoor Air Quality Plan does not have prescriptive criteria as it is recognised that each building will have differing conditions/user requirements. There is flexibility for the design team to use their professional judgement to determine what is appropriate to meet the criterion, subject to the plan addressing the relevant items as listed within the Technical Manual.
International suitably qualified professionals - KBCN1266
In some issues the International NC and RFO schemes prescribe specific requirements for suitably qualified professionals. We appreciate that some countries might have different recognition schemes in place, and these might differ from the BREEAM requirements. Where this is the case, assessors should submit a technical query with appropriate information, and we will review and approve each situation on a country basis.
Labelling and signage – Shell only/Shell & core assessments - KBCN1380
For a shell only or shell & core assessment, in terms of labelling individual bins, a written commitment from the developer is acceptable as future waste streams may be unknown and it is recognised that the bins may not be provided by the local authority/waste management company at the time of certification. However, it is a requirement of criterion 1 that the space itself is clearly labelled, ie. has appropriate signage, to indicate that it is to be used for storing recyclable waste
Laboratory facilities not restricted to building type - KBCN1340
In order to allow buildings with appropriate laboratory facilities to assess the energy performance of their labs, all assessments containing laboratory space and containment areas will be able to assess Issue ‘Energy efficient laboratory systems’, even where the relevant technical manual confirms that the Issue is not applicable to this building type. The Issue remains not applicable to primary and secondary school buildings given the limited scale of their laboratories.
Assessments registered prior to 1 July 2019 have the choice to follow the guidance as stated in the technical manual. They can exclude laboratories by responding negatively to the questions regarding laboratory facilities. For assessments registered after this date, all projects containing laboratories within the scope of the assessment should include the Issue in the assessment.
Land reclaimed from the sea - KBCN0558
Land reclaimed from the sea cannot be considered as previously developed land.
It has not been occupied by a permanent structure and any associated fixed surface infrastructure (please refer to the Additional information section).
Late appointment of the Suitably Qualified Ecologist - KBCN0603
If the Suitably Qualified Ecologist (SQE) is appointed after the commencement of activities on-site and if the other requirements of this issue are met, then credits can still be awarded, provided that:
- the SQE confirms that all relevant UK and EU legislation relating to the protection and enhancement of ecology has been complied with during the design and construction process
- the SQE confirms that their late appointment has not compromised the adoption of any measures to improve the assessed site's long term biodiversity.
13th Jul 21 Correction - applied to UK NC2018 LE05
Late confirmation of site boundary - KBCN0307
The ecologist must be appointed and engaged early on (equivalent RIBA Stage 1) so that they are able to inform the design brief. For projects where the site boundary is only confirmed at the next design stage (equivalent RIBA Stage 2), it would be acceptable to delay the full ecology survey until this time. In these circumstances, the ecologist's input at design brief may be based on a desk study or initial viewing of the site and its potential boundaries.
The aim of early engagement with an ecologist is to facilitate and maximise potential ecological enhancement, exact boundary definition does not negate this.
LCA modelling for multiple BREEAM assessments - KBCN0960
Multiple buildings' assessments
Site-wide approaches are not acceptable and each BREEAM assessment needs to have its own Life Cycle Assessment model (using an IMPACT compliant software tool or equivalent).
This applies in all cases, including when the buildings are on the same plot and are built to the same specifications.
Developing assessment-specific LCA models ensures that material quantities are accurate, refer to the actual building (and building type) and account for external works included within the scope of the specific assessment.
Single building with multiple assessments within it
Where multiple assessments are conducted for different parts of a building, it is acceptable to have a single LCA model covering all assessments. In this case, an explanation of the allocation process used should be provided and the following guidance applies:
- Common elements (e.g. roof, foundations, external walls etc): apportion a percentage of the total impact of the element to each assessment based on their percentage share of the total GIFA (e.g. if an assessment accounts for 10% of the total GIFA, 10% of the element’s impact is apportioned to that assessment).
- Elements that are only in a given assessment (e.g. internal partitions, internal finishes etc): 100% of the impact is allocated to the assessment they are in.
LCC – LZC energy sources discounted - KBCN0606
When sufficient information can be provided to justify that LZC energy sources are not appropriate for the development, the LCC analysis, for those LZC sources, do not need to be included in the feasibility study.
The feasibility study (covering all the areas required as stated in the manual) intends to demonstrate, to a reasonable level of certainty, that the chosen LZC is the most appropriate of all those available.
Leak detection – extent of responsibility - KBCN0688
For the credit to be awarded, all the pipework in a development that the owner/occupier has responsibility for must meet the leak detection criteria. In situations where third party organisations place restrictions on the pipework that can be metered, the scope of works (and hence placement of a meter for the use of leak detection) will start immediately after this point. For instance where the utility company's meter is placed midway between the boundary and the building, the scope of leak detection for BREEAM purposes will be between utility meter and the building, not to the boundary (as stated in the guidance).
The scope of the BREEAM criteria is only on pipework that the owner/occupier has control over.
Leak detection – inseparable building and site boundary - KBCN0388
Where there is no distinction between the site boundary and the building; the utility meter being either located on the boundary or within the building, the leak detection criteria apply to the mains water supply within the building only.
The BREEAM criteria apply to the pipework that the owner/occupier has responsibility for.
Leak detection – recycled water use - KBCN0433
The leak detection requirements still apply to all relevant water systems where water recycling systems are specified for WCs and urinals.
Recycled water should be considered as a valuable resource as it replaces potable water use and, in many instances, recycling systems will still incorporate a mains-water back up.
Leak detection – using a BMS - KBCN0439
A BMS can be used for leak detection purposes if it can be demonstrated that its integrated or add-on features meet all the requirements for a leak detection system.
Leak detection between building and utilities meter - KBCN1116
For all pipework which is the responsibility of the building owner or occupier leak detection is required between the building and the utilities water meter. This requirement is applicable regardless of the length of the pipework.
Where it can be demonstrated that it is not physically possible for a meter to be installed on the pipework, the requirement for leak detection between the building and the utilities meter can be considered not applicable, and the credit awarded based on the leak detection within the building.
Leak detection system based on pressure changes - KBCN0326
A system that uses pressure changes to detect leaks is not necessarily compliant. To be deemed compliant the leak detection system would need to monitor the refrigerant pressure and the operating conditions to address the problem of natural fluctuation.
Leak detection system notification - KBCN0245
So long as the compliant system alerts the appropriate person to the leak so they are able to respond immediately, the assessor can judge if the aim of the issue is being met by a reliable, robust and fail-safe means of notification.
Legally harvested and traded timber – Examples - KBCN0956
The following examples are considered compliant for BREEAM purposes.
- Evidence of compliance with the CPET (see here, timber bought inside the UK only)
- FSC, PEFC or SFI certification
- Evidence of compliance with the EUTR (timber bought inside the EU only)
- Risk assessment/due diligence documentation demonstrating a low risk of non-compliance with the ‘legally harvested’ requirements given in the manual.
- Evidence of compliance with the CPET (see here, timber bought inside the UK only)
- FSC, PEFC or SFI certification
- Risk assessment/due diligence documentation demonstrating a low risk of non-compliance with the ‘legally traded’ requirements given in the manual.
Legally harvested and traded/Legal and sustainable timber – Reclaimed/recycled timber - KBCN0654
Timber should, wherever possible, be sourced in accordance with the UK Government’s Timber Procurement Policy. However, if for reclaimed timber the original procurement details are unobtainable, robust evidence to demonstrate it has been reclaimed can be acceptable.
The government UK Government Timber Procurement Policy Timber Procurement Advice Note (6th edition) states:
As an alternative to demanding timber and wood-derived products from a Legal and Sustainable source, Contracting Authorities can demand ‘recycled timber’. Documentary evidence and independent verification will also apply to recycled timber and recycled wood-derived products but will focus on the use to which the timber was previously put rather than the forest source.
And defines ‘recycled timber’ as:
“…recovered wood that prior to being supplied to the Contracting Authority had an end use as a standalone object or as part of a structure and which has completed its lifecycle and would otherwise be disposed of as waste. The term ‘recycled’ is used to cover the following categories: pre-consumer recycled wood and wood fibre or industrial by products but excluding sawmill co-products (sawmill co-products are deemed to fall within the category of virgin timber), post-consumer recycled wood and wood fibre, and drift wood. It also covers reclaimed timber which was abandoned or confiscated at least ten years previously.”
As per the above policy, BREEAM requires “Documentary evidence and independent verification” that all reclaimed/recycled timber products meet the definition of ‘recycled timber’ given above.
01/06/2020: Amended to clarify and extended applicability to Mat 03
Legally harvested and traded/Legal and sustainable timber – Reclaimed/recycled timber - KBCN1402
As an alternative to virgin timber and wood-derived products from a Legally harvested and traded timber/Legal and Sustainable source, ‘recycled timber’ is acceptable. For the purposes of these prerequisites, ‘recycled timber’ is defined by BREEAM as:
Recovered wood that prior to being supplied to the assessed project had an end use as a standalone object or as part of a structure and which has completed its lifecycle and would otherwise be disposed of as waste. The term ‘recycled’ is used to cover the following categories: pre-consumer recycled wood and wood fibre or industrial by products but excluding sawmill co-products (sawmill co-products are deemed to fall within the category of virgin timber), post-consumer recycled wood and wood fibre, and drift wood. It also covers reclaimed timber which was abandoned or confiscated at least ten years previously.
BREEAM requires documentary evidence that all reclaimed/recycled timber products meet the definition of ‘recycled timber’ given above.
Life Cycle Cost - KBCN0385
Life Cycle Costing (LCC) is a methodology that aims at selecting the optimal option amongst a number of option appraisals.
An LCC should therefore consider at least two design option appraisals and should be based on more than one cash flow scenario in order to provide systematic economic evaluation of life cycle costs over a period of analysis.
Life cycle cost – Multiple assessments on the same site - KBCN000003
Where there are multiple assessments on a site and a single life cycle cost (LCC) plan will be carried out, it is acceptable to use this plan as evidence provided that the results of the LCC plan can be applied to all of the assessed buildings and therefore may have a positive influence on the material specification of such buildings. Where the design of some assessments differ to the extent that the LCC plan cannot reasonably be applied, a separate LCC plan is necessary to achieve credits for this issue.
Where multiple assessments are covered under a single LCC plan, there must be sufficient detail for each building to enable them to be adequately assessed.
Lifts with speeds 0.15m/s or less - KBCN1146
Lifts with speeds 0.15m/s or less fall outside the scope of ISO 25745 and can, therefore, be excluded from the assessment of this Issue. This applies, for example, to lifts in single dwellings or those installed in other low-rise buildings, specifically for the use of persons with impaired mobility.
Location of car sharing priority parking - KBCN0796
Priority spaces for car sharers need to be located in the nearest available parking area to the main building entrance or to an entrance regularly used by the car sharers.
Technical manual to be updated accordingly in next reissue.
LZC technologies – energy centre or other LZCs connected at a later stage - KBCN0267
If a project specifies LZCs that have been proposed in the feasibility report which reduce emissions, and/or will be connected to a site-wide energy centre operational at a later stage of the phased development, after the Post Construction Stage review has been submitted, the Energy and Pollution issues can be assessed as follows:
In a phased development where the primary heating system will be upgraded at a later stage than the building being assessed, a commitment to install the new heating source must be made in the General Contract Specification (as per the BREEAM requirements). BREEAM does not specify a particular time for phasing as it is difficult to set parameters, however as a rule building users should have to wait the least time possible before they can use the upgraded heating source.
For the quality audit, two Energy model outputs/EPCs must be produced at the final stage - one with the actual interim system installed for building control, and one for the BREEAM assessment which can include the predicted energy from the proposed energy centre. Additionally, the legally binding general contract specification for the new heating source must be submitted with details of the timescales proposed for the completion of the second phase of work. Where this approach is to be followed BREEAM must be consulted in each case to ensure that the arrangements are sufficiently robust to award the credits.
BREEAM seeks to recognise the environmental impacts of a building's energy use throughout its life, therefore temporary arrangements can be accommodated, provided there is robust evidence on future connection to the permanent systems.
LZC technologies – planning conditions and restrictions - KBCN0535
Where a mandatory planning condition exists (eg to attach to a District Heating Scheme), this will clearly affect the number of options available in a feasibility study. In such cases, compliance can still be achieved where evidence on the planning condition restrictions is provided, and it is clarified how this excludes other technologies from being considered.
The feasibility study will still need to be carried out to cover the remaining energy needs of the building (eg Electrical and lighting load in the case of a district heating scheme).
LZC technologies – shell only feasibility study - KBCN0409
For a shell only project, compliance may be assessed on the built form only i.e. demonstrating that sufficient space and clearance for the installation of future LZCs has been considered, the built form is suitably sited, and that massing and orientation are optimised for the future systems.
Majority of water demand from rainwater harvesting - KBCN0860
If the majority of water use is supplied by sources other than mains or private water, for example rainwater harvesting, and this use will be monitored, additional metering of the smaller water demand that is masked by the larger demand is not necessary.
Manual watering - KBCN0553
Where the design team can justify that manual watering provides a reduction in unregulated water consumption, this can be considered as an acceptable method for reducing unregulated water use.
Manufacturer’s information – system specific data - KBCN0926
The BREEAM technical manual provides a set of default figures, for use within the DELC calculation. Where available, system-specific data, provided by the manufacturer, can be used in the calculation where this is more representative. Any such system-specific figures used must be supported by publicly available, published data, which substantiates the manufacturer’s figures.
Mat 01 / Mat 03 calculator not big enough - KBCN0647
If a project has more specifications than there is rows available in the tool you can group specifications that have the same green guide rating/responsible sourcing level with each of the specifications with the same rating listed in the same row. The proportion that they contribute to the overall area is also combined. For example where a project has 30 different upper floor specifications, if 10 upper floor specifications are A+, 10 are A, 5 are B and 5 are C then you would only need to use 4 lines.
Mat 01 Calculator Option 1 – verified LCA tools - KBCN0237
Before an LCA tool can be recognised by BREEAM, the tool developer must submit evidence to BRE to verify the tool’s points scored in the Mat 01 Calculator.
The LCA tool is then given its own tab in the calculator, which confirms the maximum score the tool can achieve, if used to its fullest extent. Items coloured green within the calculator are locked because they do not change when using the LCA tool. The items in blue should be edited by the design team to confirm the extent the tool has been used on the project. For RFO schemes, the assessment parts must also be selected.
Items listed as ‘N’ in column W ‘Included in assessment?
’ cannot be changed to a ‘Y’, as the LCA tool cannot be used for this element. For example internal doors cannot be assessed by the Green Guide. An element listed as ‘Y’ can be changed to a ‘N’ if the LCA tool has not been used for the element in the assessment.
Column S confirms if the assessed building includes the element and should be included. For example if there are no stairs in the assessment, then this element is removed from the calculation by saying ‘N’ to cell S15 (in the green guide calculator).
12/01/2017 Reference to LCA approved tools updated.
Measures for protecting features of ecological value - KBCN0583
Where the actions outlined in CN 'Protecting features of ecological value' are deemed not appropriate for a particular site, by a suitably qualified ecologist (SQE), it would be acceptable for alternative means of protection to be used where recommended by an SQE. Where alternative approaches are being used, the assessor must ensure that adequate evidence is collated to demonstrate the ecologists recommendations have been implemented, this should include clear photographic evidence of the solution implemented.
This is to ensure that professional expertise is applied to appropriately address specific scenarios.
Measures in CIBSE TM50 for Kitchen and catering facilities - KBCN0663
The measures are listed in the section summaries (blue boxes) in the guide. The sections that follow each summary in the Guide are explanations of the measures. Therefore you can refer to these parts if you need further clarification about the measures.
When considering which measures to target, first discount any energy efficiency measures which are not applicable to the project, or are specifically excluded in the criteria.
Of the remaining measures, where the criteria requires that two thirds or more are to be achieved always round up any figures. For instance if there are five applicable measures in a section, four will need to be achieved. If there are only two, both will need to be achieved.
Many measures in TM50 require consideration of what is the best option or specification. The intent of our criteria is to demonstrate that these measures have been considered by the relevant specialist and have informed the design and specification of the catering facilities, but energy savings do not need to be quantified.
At design stage it is acceptable for a letter or document to be produced confirming how each measure has been considered along with justification for how this has informed the specification. Where the measures require training to be carried out, relevant training materials could be used as evidence. At post-construction stage, any type of general evidence deemed appropriate by the assessor would be sufficient to confirm the specified measures have been installed.
25/08/2017 Updated to clarify compliance and evidence requirements.
Measuring the flow rate of domestic components - KBCN0641
On site testing can be carried out by an appropriate professional to determine the flow rate and capacity of domestic components. This must be overseen by the client’s facilities manager and as-built drawings must be provided to confirm the presence and location of the components and any flow restrictors. Note that the conditions under which the testing is completed must be recorded, e.g. the pressure and the temperature of the water for taps. The assessor could conduct the test provided they are able to carry it out accurately.
15/02/2021: amended to cover all component types.
Metering recycled water - KBCN0658
Water-consuming plant or building areas consuming 10% or more of the building’s total water demand need to be sub-metered. This applies to recycled water, such as rainwater, grey water or process water as well as mains water.
The aim of the Issue is to encourage reductions in water consumption, which is beneficial, regardless of its source. Monitoring the use of recycled water, may also help to reinforce the benefits of doing so and encourage further reductions.
Minimising water course pollution – no water courses present - KBCN0550
The credit for 'minimising water course pollution' has to be assessed even in cases where no water courses are in close vicinity to the site under assessment. This is because the aim of this credit is to encourage developments to minimise water course pollution by restricting the discharge of potentially contaminated water from entering the public sewer.
Minimising water course pollution does not focus on water directly entering water courses.
Multi-Residential: Internal recyclable waste container if waste is sorted off site - KBCN0354
Where the Local Authority or waste management company for the scheme provide evidence confirming that recyclable waste will be sorted after they have collected it from site, it is acceptable to provide one internal storage bin of a minimum capacity of 30 L rather than 3 separate internal bins. The relevant recycling scheme must collect at least 3 of the following materials; paper, cardboard, glass, plastics, metals or textiles.
Multi-residential: Waste storage shared by more than six bedrooms - KBCN0856
Where multi-residential buildings contain communal facilities shared by more than six bedrooms, the requirement for total waste storage can be increased on a pro-rata basis to demonstrate compliance.
For instance, if the standard requirement is 30L for six bedrooms, this equates to 5L per bedroom. Where assessing a flat with eight bedrooms, this requirement increases to 40L (8 x 5L).
The minimum size of individual containers remains unchanged as per the criteria.
Multiple buildings on the same site - KBCN0559
The areas of hard landscaping and boundary protection that need to be assessed on a site that contains several developments/buildings depends on the scope of works and scope of the assessment(s) being undertaken.
Essentially, the areas that need to be assessed are all the areas of hard landscaping (as defined within the relevant definitions of the credit issue) and boundary protection within the construction zone (again defined within the relevant definitions) that are within the scope of works of the building under assessment.
Therefore, if all buildings on one site are being assessed in one BREEAM assessment, then the hard landscaping and boundary protection related to all of these building's scope of works will need to be assessed.
If there are several buildings with individual assessments and their own defined scope of works, then the hard landscaping and boundary protection applicable to the scope of works of each individual building will be assessed for each associated assessment.
The assessment is concerned with the hard landscaping and boundary protection associated to the project under assessment, i.e. the areas under the control of the project under assessment.
Multiple developments monitoring construction waste on a site - KBCN00036
Where the same contractor is working on a site with more than one development, a single Site Waste Management Plan (SWMP)/Resource Management Plan (RMP) can be produced to demonstrate compliance, if it can be justified that separation of the waste would be impractical.
Where the developments are of a similar nature, such as all new-build or all refurbishment with similar scope, the results from the whole development can be apportioned on the basis of floor area to derive the figures upon which the separate developments will be assessed.
Where the buildings are not similar, the design team will need to provide calculations to demonstrate that the waste has been apportioned as accurately as possible according to the project types.
21/11/16 Clarification added in relation to dissimilar projects on the same site.
Natural Ventilation Heat Recovery Units - KBCN1126
Natural Ventilation Heat Recovery Units (NVHR) systems can be used to support a natural ventilation strategy where it can be demonstrated that openable windows provide sufficient fresh air to the building for the significant majority of the time that the space is occupied.
The assessor will need to use their professional judgement to determine a 'significant majority of time' and be able to justify this within the assessment report.
New build extension using existing lifts - KBCN0444
Where the assessment is only of a new build extension (and not the existing building), lifts present in the existing building fall outside the scope of Ene 06 and do not need to be assessed. The applies only when the lifts are not being renewed or undergoing a major refurbishment.
New EU energy labels - KBCN1445
In recent years, the market for domestic-scale appliances has seen excellent progress, with increasingly energy-efficient products becoming widely available. Consequently, the A-rated category was extended over time to include A+, A++, and A+++ ratings. Meanwhile, the lower ratings, such as E, F and G have become increasingly rare. It was clear that an adjustment to a new, simpler set of ratings was required.
March 2021, the European Commission requires new, updated energy labels of A to G for dishwashers, washing machines, fridges and electronic displays.
Lamps will require the new ratings from 1st
September 2021 and requirements for re-labelling tumble dryers are yet to be confirmed.
- A+ to A+++ will transition mainly to C through to F
- A and B will initially apply to very few products
- G ratings will be phased out, with F ratings to follow
Changes for BREEAM and HQM
As a result of the introduction of the new EU ratings and in order to maintain the original intent of the BREEAM criteria, the approach for our schemes has had to change.
It is not possible to establish direct equivalence between the old and new energy labels, therefore the updated approach will be to recognise the best-performing 25% of each appliance type, based on a comprehensive market sample. The table below shows how this translates into the new EU Energy Labels for different appliance types.
This approach will ensure that BREEAM continues to drive the energy efficiency of appliances by demonstrating a meaningful reduction in energy consumption. Note that these new requirements will be reviewed from time to time and may be subject to change.
Where assessments have already specified (and can procure) products bearing the old labels, it is acceptable to follow the previous criteria. However, where products bear the new label and for all assessments registered after 31/05/2021, the new criteria must be met.
12 May 2021 - Guidance updated and applicability to HQM One and BREEAM NOR confirmed.
Night-time operation – requirement for controls - KBCN1048
Projects which operate at night-time can adapt or omit the requirement to provide controls or presence detection to align with the building’s hours of operation.
The aim of this Issue is to reduce the energy use for external lighting and should not interfere with the building’s operation.
No car parking provision - KBCN00059
Where the assessment criteria are applicable to a building that has no car parking spaces and where there are no parking spaces accessible to building users, the benchmarks can be considered to be met. If, however, parking is shared with other buildings or parking spaces are available on a campus-type site then the provision must still be assessed.
No data for AI at Design Stage - KBCN0551
If there is insufficient data for a future transport service to include this in the calculation of the AI at the Design Stage, it should not be accounted for.
If at Post Construction stage the data is available, this can be incorporated.
Whilst certain Design Stage requirements can be based on commitments to achieve a certain performance, this must be based on verifiable data.
16/04/18 Wording amended to clarify that this applies to future services and to allow applicability to UK NC 2018
No external plant specified - KBCN0931
Where there is no external plant specified and the acoustician confirms that there is no significant noise source, it is acceptable for the acoustician to provide a formal statement in lieu of the noise impact assessment. All other evidence for this issue must be provided as listed in the Evidence table.
The formal statement should be produced by a 'suitably qualified acoustician' (as defined in the Relevant Definitions for this issue) and should justify this approach with reference to the specific internal plant to be installed and the proximity of any noise sensitive areas or buildings.
The statement must explain clearly how the aim of the issue is being met.
No refrigerant use – shell & core assessments - KBCN1058
The credits for Pol 01 can be awarded if the asset requires no refrigerants as per the criteria.
In speculative assessments, future tenant systems are unknown. To award the credits, evidence must show that the asset has been designed to operate without the need for air-conditioning or comfort cooling for the conditioning of occupied spaces. One way to demonstrate this is to achieve the ‘Free cooling’ credit.
Only refrigerants used for occupant comfort are assessed. Do not assess any refrigerant use for process-related functions.
21.09.2021 Wording amended for clarity
No unregulated energy consumption in the building - KBCN00066
Where there are no items, contributing to the unregulated (or equipment) energy consumption in the building, there is currently no mechanism to award credits. If, however, in this situation, significant contributors, not listed in the table, will be specified, the design team should justify how a meaningful reduction will be achieved for these contributors, in order to demonstrate compliance.
08/05/19 Wording amended to account for situations, where a meaningful reduction in unregulated energy can be demonstrated by other means.
18.05.2017 KBCN applicability removed for NC2011 and NC2013, for which compliance can be demonstrated via the three shell and core options, as per the technical manual.
Not enough rows in the Pol 01 calculator - KBCN1274
If additional rows are required in the calculator it is acceptable to add the specification of multiple models together in one tool, provided they are the same model and have all the same inputs for columns F to M. The weighting of the systems across the building is done by the System Capacity and Total Refrigerant Charge (columns E and F), so you would multiply each of these two figures by the total number of the system specified. This gives the contribution of the systems to the building's cooling capacity and charge. If further rows are still required please email BREEAM@bregroup.com
with a copy of the tool and specify the number of rows required.
Obligation to provide a minimum number of car parking spaces exceeding BREEAM requirements - KBCN0401
Where it can be demonstrated (by documentary evidence) an obligation to meet a ’minimum car parking requirement’ which exceeds the BREEAM benchmarks is imposed by the planning authority, as long as no more than the stipulated minimum spaces are provided, a single credit can be awarded.
Occupancy calculation – Buildings with shift patterns - KBCN0431
In buildings with shift patterns, as shifts may overlap, the building users calculation should be based on the maximum occupancy of the building at any given time.
Occupant control – BMS and degree of control - KBCN0175
A Building Management System controlled set point with local override controls limited to a set range would satisfy the occupant control requirement so long as the temperature range available to building users is confirmed as appropriate for the building type and user profile.
Occupant control – spaces requiring user controls - KBCN0170
The following guidance is intended to clarify the types of area for which user controls are required or would be considered beneficial. Please refer to the specific requirements of the applicable BREEAM Scheme to interpret this guidance appropriately.
User controls which allow independent adjustment of heating/cooling systems within the building are
required/considered beneficial in the following areas:
- Owned spaces: small rooms for one or two people, e.g. cellular offices
- Shared spaces: multi-occupied areas, e.g. open-plan offices, workshops.
- Temporarily owned spaces: where occupants expect to operate the heating/ cooling controls while they are there, e.g. meeting rooms, hotel bedrooms.
User controls which allow independent adjustment of heating/cooling systems within the building are not
required in the following areas:
- Occasionally visited spaces: e.g. storerooms, bookstacks in libraries, aisles of warehouses, toilets.
- Unowned spaces: where areas are expected to be heated but the controls are not operated by the occupants, e.g. circulation areas.
- Managed spaces: where someone is in charge of the heating/ cooling, but the controls are not operated by individual occupants, e.g. atria, concourses, entrance halls, function halls, restaurants, libraries, and shops.
Please note that zoning is required in all areas of the building where specified in the assessment criteria for this issue.
User controls are required/considered beneficial in spaces which are owned, shared or temporarily owned by individual building occupants. User controls are not required in occasionally visited spaces or spaces where individual occupants are not expected to have control over the thermal conditions.
Off-site ecological enhancement - KBCN0651
BREEAM does not recognise enhancements which are not within the boundary of the site being assessed, as the aims of the land use and ecology section relate to the ecological value and biodiversity of the specific site under assessment.
However, off-site ecological enhancement can be accepted where:
- It is within the wider site, surrounding or adjoining the development.
- The land is currently under the ownership of the developer and intended to remain so (i.e. there are no immediate plans to sell);
- The Suitably Qualified Ecologist (SQE) confirms that the proposed ecological enhancements are appropriate and more effective than can be done solely within the red line boundary;
- The owner remains responsible for the on-going maintenance of the land.
Full justification and robust evidence must be submitted when relying on this approach.
BREEAM recognises that the red-line boundary drafted for planning purposes may not reflect the entire site within the control of the developer or building owner.
Off-site manufactured installations – internal finishes - KBCN0137
Internal finishes in off-site manufactured installations such as lifts need to be assessed for the VOC criteria.
The specification of internal finishes (regardless of whether they are installed on site or in the factory) will impact on VOC emissions. By specifying low VOC finishes, design teams will be encouraging manufacturers to consider the environmental impacts of their products.
Off-site waste sorting - KBCN0696
Where a building's recyclable waste is sorted off-site, BREEAM requirements relating to segregation of recyclable waste need not be met. In such cases, the assessor should provide evidence of the following:
BREEAM assesses the sustainability of the building itself rather than the management practices of the current occupier.
- That a waste management plan is in place which provides adequate storage for the frequency of collection
- That the space could reasonably be converted to comply with all BREEAM waste storage requirements if required
- That an on-going co-mingled waste recycling contract is in place
- The typical recycling rates from the waste management company
16/04/18 Wording clarified.
Office equipment – mobile devices - KBCN00041
Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets, which are generally used without connection to an electrical power source, should be excluded from the assessment of the energy efficient equipment issue.
Devices which are not generally connected to an electrical power source when used are excluded from the 'office equipment' definition as they do not directly affect the unregulated energy consumption of the building.
On site fabrication - KBCN1292
Where concrete (or another construction product) is produced on site, there is no requirement to provide responsible sourcing certification for the end product. As in this case fabrication on site is effectively part of the onsite building process, the certification of the individual products (e.g. aggregates, cement), as delivered to site, shall be used in the assessment instead.
On-demand public bus services - KBCN1404
These can be recognised as follows:
This is limited to genuine on-demand bus services, which are operated as public transport with multiple pick-up and drop-off points and does not extend to private hire, taxi or other similar operations.
- The location of the transport node should be determined as the nearest available pick-up point to the assessed building
- The frequency of the service should be considered as the published maximum wait time (or actual average wait time, if the service is established and this data is available)
- Such services, whilst they may serve multiple destinations, should be considered as a single route
- It must be demonstrated that information on the availability and how to access the service is made available to building users
Only lifts in building are for persons with impaired mobility - KBCN1330
Where the only lifts, escalators or moving walkways in the assessed development are for persons with imparied mobility with speeds no greater than 0.15m/s, and there are no lifts which fall within the scope of the criteria, the Issue should be filtered out of the assessment. Credits cannot be awarded by default.
Operational waste requirement for catering – applicability - KBCN1162
The additional operational waste storage requirement for developments which include catering is generally only applicable where a commercial scale kitchen is present.
Where the design team can justify that there will be no significant waste streams from a modest facility, such as a small cafe, selling only drinks and pre-prepared snacks, the additional waste storage area identified in the default values does not need to be provided to meet compliance.
Option 3 – Electric Vehicle Charging Spaces (EVCS) - KBCN1403
The criteria for Option 3 are based on the number and size of dwellings. It has been recognised, however, that for many developments, where the number of car parking spaces provided is limited, this may not be appropriate.
The criteria for this option will be fully reviewed for the forthcoming scheme update, however in the meantime, the following clarifications can be applied.
In order to ensure that provision is available to occupants according to nature of the development and the type of parking arrangement, the requirements are set out as below. For communal parking, accounting for the expected increase in uptake of PEVs (Plug-In Electric Vehicle), whilst mindful of the useful service life of EV charging equipment, the number of fully-functional EVCS required for compliance has been reduced.
Individual dwellings with private parking spaces within the curtilage of the property
The current criteria apply, as per Table 32 (NC2013) and Table 35 (NC2016).
In instances where it can be demonstrated that the total number of parking spaces for the dwelling is less than the number of EVCS required by the criteria, two credits can be awarded where all parking spaces provided are fully functional EVCS.
Developments with communal parking areas
1 Credit – Compliance can be demonstrated by installing all the necessary infrastructure to all car parking spaces, (including visitor spaces, where provided), of which at least 25% are fully functional.
2 Credits - Compliance can be demonstrated by installing all the necessary infrastructure to all car parking spaces (including visitor spaces, where provided), of which at least 50% are fully functional EVCS.
Where on-site parking provision includes special user-groups, such as disabled, car share, car pool or visitors only, compliance can be met where the required percentage of EVCS is provided for those users on a pro-rata basis, with a minimum of one EVCS, per user-group provided for on site.
Where on-site parking provision is limited to such special user-groups only, compliance can be met where the required percentage of EVCS is provided for those users (up to a maximum of providing EVCS for all spaces), with a minimum of one EVCS, per user-group provided for on site.
2 Credits - Compliance can be demonstrated by installing all the necessary infrastructure to all car parking spaces, (including visitor spaces, where provided). This clarifies the guidance previously provided in KBCN1247.
In all cases, the above clarifications do not seek to impose more onerous requirements than those specified in the technical guidance.
Other buildings specified fittings worse than baseline - KBCN00021
Where the performance of a sanitary fitting is worse than the baseline level, the baseline level as specified in the manual should be input as the level of performance in the Other Buildings calculator tab of the Wat 01 tool.
Outdoor foundations - KBCN0787
Outdoor foundations for lighting poles, bike racks, charging stations, etc., need to be included under hard landscaping, provided they are above the cut-off volume.
Paints for specialist applications - KBCN0872
Where a paint or coating does not fall within one of the categories in Annex II of the EU Directive 2004/42/CE or the categories in the relevant tables of the technical manuals (for schemes where the Directive is not applicable), then the paint or coating does not need to be assessed.
16/06/2017 KBCN extracted from existing KBCN0212.
13/03/2020 KBCN amended to clarify exceptions and applicability
Park and Ride Schemes - KBCN0754
'Park and ride' bus services run from one or more car parks to a city centre or other destination to allow travellers to park their car at a convenient location and complete their journey by bus. These generally stop at transport nodes en route to allow passengers to board or alight.
Provided the service meets the aim of the Issue with reference to the guidance, they can be considered for this Issue in the same way as any other bus service.
Parking integral to development’s use - KBCN1145
Dedicated on-site parking which is integral to the function of the development can be excluded from the calculation of parking capacity. Examples could include, but are not limited to:
- Dedicated bays for police vehicles at a police station
- Parking for delivery vehicles at an industrial warehouse
- Holding bays for damaged vehicles at a vehicle repair centre
The spaces are only to be used for this purpose, and must have appropriate signage and / or markings.
Parking spaces with electric car recharging stations - KBCN00044
Electric car spaces should be included in the total number of car parking spaces calculation for maximum car parking capacity.
Whilst electric cars provide benefits in terms of reduced emissions, they do not directly reduce congestion which is one of the aims of this issue.
Performance requirements to be met by finished product - KBCN0212
Decorative paints and varnishes that occupants are exposed to should be assessed. This is likely to include paints applied to walls, ceilings, floors, doors, etc.
It should be noted where finishes are applied to the product within the factory, these would be assessed as part of the whole product rather than as decorative paints and varnishes. The product as a whole must meet the requirements, for example if a wood panel has a finish applied to it in the factory, the whole product, i.e. all elements that make up that product, including the finish, would need comply with the requirements set for wood panel products in the issue.
The finished product as a whole must meet the performance requirements/emission limits stipulated in the relevant BREEAM technical manual.
16/06/2017 Title and general principle amended to extend the applicability of the KBCN to all finishes. Paints specified for specialist applications covered in KBCN0872.
Point of use water heaters - KBCN0773
Small 'point of use' water heaters can be excluded from the sub-metering requirements.
Only major energy consuming systems that have a measurable impact on the operational energy consumption need to be included.
Post construction noise level testing - KBCN00043
Noise level measurements do not need to be taken at the post construction stage if the acoustician has accurately modelled the noise level from the plant, using manufacturer's literature, and site measurements taken at the design stage. Any attenuation measures specified by the acoustician in their report must be confirmed as being present post construction.
If the acoustician has been unable to model the noise level accurately, post construction measurements are needed to demonstrate compliance.
Calculations and recommendations from the acoustician are relied on to be accurate and in keeping with best practice; attenuation measures are assumed to be specified and installed correctly.
Potential for natural ventilation – shell only assessments - KBCN0408
Where compliance depends on a speculative layout which is unknown, it is the responsibility of the design team to demonstrate that it is feasible for a future tenant to achieve compliance in the relevant areas via the use of a notional layout.
This ensures that the shell allows the potential for compliance, and if this can be demonstrated the credit may be awarded.
Pre-demolition audit & diversion of resources from landfill - KBCN00025
There is currently no requirement to carry out a pre-demolition audit to allow the award of the credit for diversion of resources from landfill.
Pre-demolition audit – demolition in a later phase - KBCN1012
Where the demolition of an existing building forms part of the works to enable the assessed development, a pre-demolition audit must be carried out to comply with the criteria, even if the demolition occurs as part of a later phase.
28/02/2018 Wording amended for clarity
Pre-demolition audit/(pre-refurbishment) on other structures and hard surfaces - KBCN00045
A pre-demolition/(pre-refurbishment) audit is required where any existing buildings, structures or hard surfaces are present on a development site.
The intent of the pre-demolition/(pre-refurbishment) audit is to ensure that any potentially useful materials are considered for re-use or diversion from landfill, not just materials resulting from buildings.
22.11.17 Reference added to the pre-refurbishment audit for RFO assessments.
Pre-demolition/(pre-refurbishment) audit requirement - KBCN0243
Where the site demolition/clearance does not form part of the principal contractor’s works, but has been undertaken by the developer for the purposes of enabling the assessed development, a pre-demolition/pre-refurbishment audit must be carried out and referenced within the SWMP as per the guidance.
Where justification and robust evidence can be provided, the following exceptions may apply:
This requirement seeks to encourage good practice by developers and design teams in relation to previously developed sites.
- Where it can be demonstrated that demolition/clearance was carried out prior to the developer acquiring the site and no pre-demolition/pre-refurbishment audit is available.
- Where the demolition was expedited for health and safety reasons.
- Where the demolition has been carried out by the same developer, but as part of a significantly earlier site clearance, occurring prior to RIBA stage 0 and no less than 12 months ahead of the requirement being set to carry out a BREEAM assessment. In such cases it must be clearly demonstrated that the demolition was unrelated to the current re-development.
11/12/2019 Additional exception added to align with KBCN1257 and guidance re-structured for clarity
22 11 2017 Reference added to the pre-refurbishment audit for RFO assessments.
15 11 2017 Wording amended for clarity
Previously developed land – temporary structures - KBCN0659
The presence of concrete and hardstanding areas established as temporary structures for enabling works are not considered to be previously developed land on a site.
The nature of enabling works are temporary; with the purpose of enabling the delivery of a development and are not constructed to be permanent. Temporary structures of this kind are not included in the definition of previously developed land no matter how long they have been present on a site.
Previously occupied land – Fixed surface infrastructure - KBCN1140
Car parks and other hard-landscaped areas often incorporate small pockets of soft landscaping. Where these are integral to the hard landscaping and constitute a small proportion of the total area, these areas can be considered as part of the fixed surface infrastructure.
Priority spaces for car sharers calculation - KBCN0282
The calculation of priority spaces for car sharers should account only for the car parking capacity that is dedicated to the staff working in the building, without considering the spaces for customers or visitors.
As such, car sharing spaces should be clearly segregated from customer/visitor parking areas.
23/03/2017 note added clarifying requirement for segregation
Process water to offset potable water demand - KBCN0586
Process water resulting from the building under assessment, can be considered for off-setting potable water demand from components that would otherwise be supplied using potable water, when in line with the criteria requirements for greywater systems.
Process water resulting from the building under assessment can be considered as a form of greywater for the purposes of off-setting potable water demand.
Project budget - KBCN0893
The project budget is required as evidence to demonstrate that an amount of money has been set aside for the commissioning and testing programme, responsibilities and criteria.
It is appreciated that, for confidentiality issues, the principal contractor might not be willing to the project's overall budget with all stakeholders. In such cases, compliance with this requirement will be met where it is clearly demonstrated that the costs related to sustainability measures, which may involve members of the design team, have been included in the overall budget. A wish-list that will later be value-engineered out of the project will not be deemed acceptable.
The costs relating to sustainability measures included in the brief must be costed.
Proposing national best practice guidance on defining granular fill and capping as a high grade use - KBCN1138
Recycled aggregates used for granular fill and capping can only be considered ‘high grade’ if they:
- conform to specifications in national best practice guidance (refer to the ASWL).
- OR, where there is no national best practice guidance approved, new guidance can be proposed to BRE for approval:
- Specifications in national best practice guidance must include as a minimum, limits and requirements on the properties listed in Checklist A6.
- Specifications must be specifically for recycled aggregate for use as granular fill or capping.
- National best practice guidance is not required to cover test methodologies.
- OR, alternatively, the UK standard ‘Specification for Highway Works (SHW) Series 600 Earthworks’ and classifications as listed in the relevant definition section of the UK NC 2014 manual can be used.
If none of these apply, the recycled aggregates should be considered ‘low grade’ and excluded from the assessment of the Issue.
Protecting vulnerable parts of the building from damage – underground car parks - KBCN1331
Exposed elements, such as columns in an underground car park, should have been designed against structural damage from minor vehicle collision and, therefore, do not require any additional protection to meet compliance for this BREEAM Issue. Assessors should, however, consider whether additional protection is required at the vehicular entrance to underground car parks.
The requirements are intended to address the issue of damage to vulnerable parts of the facade, which would require repair/replacement in the event of minor vehicular collisions.
Public Bicycle Sharing Systems - KBCN0473
Public bicycle sharing systems can contribute up to 50% toward providing a compliant number of customer cycle facilities for retail assessments. However, the number of customer cycle racks required must be calculated separately from the provision for staff, otherwise there could be a situation where no customer cycle spaces are provided; only cycle sharing, which would not meet the aim of the issue.
Public car parks - KBCN00092
Any public car parks in the vicinity of the assessed building, for which the building owners/operator are not providing some form of subsidy or an agreement with the car park operators to provide priority spaces for building staff, can be excluded from the assessment.
Raised access floors - KBCN00018
For the purposes of Mat 03, raised access floors should be considered as part of the floor structure.
HQM - Applies to HQM's Responsible Sourcing of Construction Products assessment issue.
Re-used electrical equipment - KBCN0325
BREEAM does not currently recognise the reuse of electrical equipment as the most energy efficient option for compliance with this issue. If it can be demonstrated that such existing electrical appliances meet the criteria for inclusion in the relevant national or international energy efficient equipment schemes, these can be considered compliant.
If new equipment is procured in addition to the re-use of the old equipment, the existing equipment may be excluded from this assessment. In these situations the assessor must be satisfied that the new equipment would make a meaningful reduction to overall unregulated energy consumption.
This issue assesses the reduction of unregulated energy consumption in operation and does not currently assess embodied energy in the manufacture of equipment.
Recycled aggregate evidence prior to contractor’s appointment - KBCN0231
If the contractor has not been appointed at the time of submitting the Design Stage assessment, whilst it is imperative for the design team to demonstrate a firm commitment to meet the criteria and award the credit at this stage, a letter from the design team or developer to confirm that no contractor has been appointed should be submitted in lieu of the stated letter of confirmation. This should also be clarified in the Assessment Report.
BREEAM recognises that it may not be desirable to confirm the specification, source and availability of a particular recycled aggregate for a project where the contractor has not been appointed yet. This would restrict the contractor's ability to source the most economically viable recycled aggregate to meet the BREEAM criteria.
Recycled aggregates in concrete - KBCN0823
The relevant CN in the technical manual, which confirms that no concessions are given to the criteria, reads:
‘Where national building regulations limit the use of recycled aggregates in concrete (typically applicable to bound aggregate uses as listed), the onus for achieving this credit is on the unbound uses (please note that the total aggregate figure must still include the bound uses).’
To clarify, in the calculation, the percentage of recycled aggregates in both bound and unbound uses can be considered against the total high grade use for the project.
Technical manual to be updated accordingly in next reissue.
Regenerative drives – requirement for specification - KBCN1253
Requirements for the specification of a regenerative drive for lift installations are subject to an analysis of resultant energy savings. However, where it can be demonstrated that this is not financially viable, accounting for payback over the service life of the installation, this option can be discounted.
Please also refer to other scheme-specific guidance relating to this requirement.
Remedial works – timing of acoustic re-testing - KBCN1164
The intent of CN "Remedial works" is that, where these are required, re-testing is carried out prior to handover and occupation.
However, it is permissible to carry out the re-testing post-occupation. This is provided any specific guidance for particular building types related test conditions have been met (for instance, it may be that some building specific guidance requires furniture or carpets to not be present during the testing).
Compliance cannot be achieved based on a letter from the SQA confirming that the contractor has followed their advice to achieve the required performance.
07.11.18 KBCN amended to allow for re-testing to be carried-out post-handover.
Reporting PPD and PMV Figures - KBCN0867
The individual carrying out the modelling should be able to provide values for both the PMV and PPD for the building.
The PMV and PPD values need to be reported, in the scoring & reporting tool, for data recording purposes.
The values to report are the observed range of values for PMV and PPD across all occupied areas across all the hours when these are expected to be occupied (enter the minimum and maximum for each i.e. PMV = 0.2 - 0.5, PPD = 10 - 15%).
However, if compliance with the thermal comfort criteria is demonstrated without using a full dynamic thermal analysis software package and via a less complex system, which does not generate the required PMV/PPD metrics, these do not have to be provided.
Responsible construction practices – Multiple contractors on the same project - KBCN0352
It is the site that must comply with BREEAM issues rather than any individual contractor. Several different contractors may have obligations to meet compliance criteria. One of the contractors and/or site managers may have responsibility for ensuring compliance during site operations. It is ultimately the client/project team's responsibility to determine and demonstrate compliance.
Restricted movement within a secure perimeter - KBCN000009
Where the movement of pedestrians, cyclists and vehicles is tightly controlled within a secure perimeter due to security considerations, these areas may be excluded from the safe access criteria. Where the whole assessment is within such a zone, the credit may be awarded by default.
Reversible heat pump (VRF) providing both heating and cooling - KBCN0735
Where a reversible heat pump, which provides heating and cooling on reverse cycle with heat recovery, is used, the cooling capacity only should be used for the Direct Effect Life Cycle CO2e emissions (DELC) calculation.
The cooling capacity of heat humps is normally less than the heating capacity, so compliance against the criteria will be based on the more challenging DELC value calculated.
RGB LED lighting - KBCN0986
RGB LED lighting must be assessed against the average external lighting efficacy benchmark.
The current criteria do not completely rule out the use of RGB LED lighting as it can potentially be combined with other types of external lighting to meet the average efficacy benchmark.
Risk assessment – appropriate person - KBCN0539
If an officially recognised body or a local/city authority are in charge of conducting an assessment of the natural risks for a development, and this meets the BREEAM criteria, this can be accepted as meeting compliance. In this case the body/authority can be considered an 'appropriate person'.
Risk to Ecologist’s safety - KBCN0704
In some situations a significant safety risk may prevent a suitably qualified ecologist from attending the site to undertake a site survey. In these cases a desktop study can be used to demonstrate compliance, where the ecologist confirms that it is an acceptably robust substitute.
In these cases, the assessor must provide evidence to confirm the type of significant safety risk present.
Rounding the number of parking spaces - KBCN0602
Where the calculated number of car parking spaces is a fraction of a whole number, this should be rounded down to the next whole number to assess the issue.
Fewer parking spaces are preferable as the more sustainable solution.
Safe access – vehicle delivery routes - KBCN1046
Vehicle delivery routes which cross cycle or pedestrian routes may be acceptable provided there are adequate physical control measures in place to ensure safe access and thus minimise the possibility of delivery vehicles coming into conflict with cyclists and pedestrians.
Examples of such measures could be vehicle barriers or retractable vehicle bollards, which only allow access to delivery vehicles when required and whose operation and controls account for cycle and pedestrian movements.
18 Mar 2021 wording clarified
07.06.2018 Intent and wording clarified.
Safe access criteria requirements for small infill developments and extensions - KBCN0810
For smaller infill developments (typically those with a total gross floor area of less than 1,000m2
) where there is no opportunity to make changes to the surrounding site or access to the building itself (other than those directly related to connecting building access points to existing pathways etc.), it is recognised that full compliance with the BREEAM criteria for safe access may not be achievable. This applies to developments where either:
- the assessed building lies within an existing site or campus under single ownership or
- the assessed building is an extension to existing buildings within an existing site or campus
In such instances the existing site layout should undergo a risk assessment against the BREEAM 'Safe Access' criteria to identify areas where there is potential for enhancement across the site. The findings should be reported to the client and design team and any non-compliant aspects should be resolved as far as practically possible within the scope of the project, however there is no express requirement to achieve full compliance in every respect. Where the assessor is satisfied that the above requirements have been met, the credit for 'Safe access' can be awarded.
31/03/17 Reference to achieving 'Security' credit removed
Safe pedestrian routes: definition, measurement and verification - KBCN0238
Safe pedestrian routes include pavements and safe crossing points or, where provided, dedicated controlled crossing points. A safe crossing point could also be a tactile crossing that drops to the level of the road, which could be used by wheelchair users. An element of assessor judgement is required and if in doubt, their justification of safe crossing points should be provided.
For measuring the distance, for example, you could measure a safe pedestrian route along a pavement, across a road at a safe point and along the pavement on the other side. The distance should not be measured diagonally across a road along the most direct route.
In terms of evidence, Google Maps may be used, provided that the scale is appropriate and clearly indicated. In order to demonstrate that the route is ‘safe’, ‘Streetview’ may be acceptable for Design Stage evidence, however this should be verified by the assessor’s site inspection and photographs of any key areas for the Post Construction Review. The assessor's site inspection is an important aspect of the assessment of this issue as it must confirm that the Google Maps and Streetview information is current, and may help to identify safe crossing points or hazards which may not be apparent from a desktop study.
The purpose of requiring ‘safe pedestrian routes’ is to ensure that there are suitable pavements and that distances are not measured using the shortest route, ignoring safety issues. If a pedestrian crossing or crossing island is available to assist crossing busy road, the route and distance should account for this.
Safety and security lighting – definition - KBCN0888
BRE does not provide a specific definition of safety and security lighting, as this could vary, depending on the project and location of the lighting. Together with the design team, the assessor is required to determine which lights are provided purely for safety and security purposes and which should be considered as general lighting.
Scope – Fully-fitted assessments with areas completed to shell & core - KBCN1233
In such situations, the following options can be followed:
1. Include the shell & core area in the fully-fitted assessment, however this may have a negative impact on the assessment, as all aspects of this area would need to be assessed against the fully-fitted criteria.
2. Exclude the shell & core areas from the assessment. Note that this may require the BREEAM certificate to be endorsed to clarify that the whole building has not been certified.
It may be possible to assess the shell & core area separately, if required.
3. Wait until the shell & core areas have been fitted-out before certifying.
Please also refer to KBCN0702.
Scope of construction works included - KBCN0642
Only the scope of works the principal contractor is responsible for needs to be considered in the assessment of this Issue. This also includes works carried out by sub-contractors that are engaged by the principal contractor.
03.11.2021 Above text added to issue 2.0 of the UK RFO technical manual. Text remains applicable to all previous issues of the manual.
Scope of the refrigerant leak detection system - KBCN0530
The refrigerant leak detection system is required to cover any part of the plant or pipework which contains refrigerant.
21/08/17 KBCN amended to include pipework containing refrigerant.
Scope: Fully fitted, shell and core and shell only – guidance for classification - KBCN0702
In cases where a project is a mix of fully-fitted, shell & core, or shell only, or the scope falls somewhere between assessment types, BREEAM cannot determine the type of assessment on behalf of the assessor/developer.
For example, assessing a project which falls between (or is a mixture of) shell only and shell & core as 'shell only' will result in a BREEAM certificate for that part of the work and will not account for any work beyond the scope of that assessment type. For the same development a 'shell and core' assessment would take account of a wider scope of work, however some BREEAM credits might not be achievable because compliance cannot be demonstrated for the shell only areas. The latter approach would achieve a higher level of certification (as shell & core) but may result in a lower score and BREEAM rating being achieved.
Similar considerations apply in the case of fully fitted and shell and core projects.
The assessor should, therefore, review the scope of the development and advise the developer accordingly.
Seasonal commissioning evidence - KBCN0818
Where the criteria require that seasonal commissioning activities are to be completed over a minimum 12 month period following the occupation of the building, it is accepted that completed records may not be available at the time of Final Certification.
In such cases, evidence of the appointment of a seasonal commissioning manager and schedule of commissioning responsibilities which fulfils the BREEAM criteria are acceptable to demonstrate compliance.
Seasonal commissioning of Solar Photovoltaics (PV) - KBCN0244
Solar PVs can be excluded from the requirements for seasonal commissioning. This is because commissioning at a particular time of the year will not affect the original commissioning of the system.
Self-contained dwellings or units with individual utility meters - KBCN0199
Where self-contained dwellings or units covered by the assessment have their own individual energy supply and utility meter (e.g. water, gas or electricity), this supply can be excluded from the scope of the issue. All shared energy supplies and common areas under the responsibility of building management are still included in the assessment.
For example, if self-contained flats in an assisted living development have individual gas supplies with their own utility meter, this supply will be excluded from the assessment. However, the lighting and small power comes from a shared distribution board on each floor, in which case this shared supply will need to be sub-metered in accordance with the criteria.
12/09/2018 Applicable to Water Monitoring Issue where appropriate
27/09/2017 The word 'units' added to include a wider range of scenarios falling under this principle.
Shared ecological enhancements - KBCN0656
A site-wide approach to ecological enhancements can be used on sites where multiple buildings share areas of soft landscaping. The enhancement benefits are applied to the individual building assessments within the site.
Similarly, where a building comprises more than one assessment, eg different floor assessments, a green roof on top of that building can be used to award credits for each assessment for which the Land use and ecology issues apply.
The benefit can be applied on a site-wide basis provided all developments are completed within the appropriate timeframe of a valid ecological survey.
Shell & core project: Completing as fully-fitted - KBCN0394
It is possible to complete an assessment as fully fitted following a design stage certification as a shell & core project. Whilst the assessment will reference much of the same evidence gathered for design stage, it must be re-registered and may be submitted as a fully-fitted Post-construction assessment.
17/04/18 Wording clarified
Sites with multiple assessed buildings - KBCN0920
For sites with multiple assessed buildings, where it proves difficult to clearly define separate construction zones for each building, the assessment of this Issue can be done on a site-wide basis where the boundary of the construction zone is considered to be the whole site.
Similarly, when it is difficult to define the proposed development footprint for each assessment, the issue can be assessed on a site-wide basis.
This can be applied to each BREEAM assessment.
Solid concrete washout - KBCN00063
Solid concrete washout waste should be included in the waste resource efficiency benchmarks.
Space heating as major energy use - KBCN0939
Where possible, space heating should always be considered as a major energy use for sub-metering purposes.
Where space heating cannot be separated from hot water, this must be fully justified by the design team at QA.
See KBCN0329: Combined system for space heating/cooling and domestic hot water.
Where electric space heating is used, this in itself cannot be used as justification for combining the space heating along with lighting and small power unless there is a clear justification for doing so.
See KBCN0068: Combined sub-metering of electric heating and small power equipment.
Specialist assisted baths in care homes - KBCN0228
Specialist assisted baths in care homes or similar specialist applications can be excluded from the assessment of this issue.
Due to the specific access and care needs of users, it may not be possible to reduce the volume of specialist assisted baths.
Speculative finishes – multiple residential developments – fully-fitted - KBCN1448
Where fully-fitted multiple residential units are developed exclusively for the rental market, compliance for this Issue can be achieved where it is demonstrated that the tenancy agreement to be implemented stipulates that the finishes cannot be replaced by the tenant.
Speculative office including floor finishes/suspended ceiling - KBCN0259
The requirements can still be met where a speculative development includes the installation of floor finishes/suspended ceilings provided a Lease Agreement will be implemented to confirm that tenants are not permitted to remove these finishes.
BREEAM recognises that incoming tenants may need to adapt ceiling or floor finishes to suit the requirements of their fit-out. Therefore, where these finishes are installed throughout, in line with Criterion 2, the following applies:
A tenancy agreement, applied to the first tenancy, should stipulate that floor or ceiling finishes may only be modified where necessary, for example, to accommodate new partitions, lighting or other services, to replace worn or damaged components or to replace small, localised areas with a specialist floor or ceiling to account for abnormal conditions, such as wet areas.
Documentary evidence of this must be provided as evidence for the credit to be awarded.
18/04/2017 KBCN made applicable to NC 2016 and IRFO 2015
05/07/2018 Paragraph added to clarify the requirements of the tenancy agreement
27 Jul 2021 Clarified that the terms of paragraph 2 apply also to floor finishes
SSM replacing BREEAM AP for on-site monitoring - KBCN0601
It is acceptable for a suitably qualified Site Sustainability Manager (SSM) to take over the monitoring of site impact role (Sustainability Champion (construction)) from a BREEAM AP.
In some instances it may be more appropriate for an SSM to carry out the role of the 'construction' Sustainability Champion. Therefore where a BREEAM AP has provided design input, an SSM could take over the role to complete the on-site requirements.
Stakeholder consultation – Building occupier unknown - KBCN0227
Where the building occupier is unknown, it is still possible to achieve the credit. The end user requirements must be assumed and considered by other project parties (e.g. client, design team, etc.) using their experience and judgement until such time as the occupier is known.
Studio Bedroom Daylighting Calculations - KBCN0733
Where studio rooms in multi-residential projects include multiple area types (e.g. A kitchen and lounge area), compliance can be achieved where either:
1. The entire studio room meets the more onerous requirements
2. The room is nominally divided into the relevant spaces and the requirements are applied to each as appropriate.
Surface water run-off – no change in impermeable area - KBCN1212
CN 3.9 states: "Where the man-made impermeable area draining to the watercourse (natural or municipal) has decreased or remains unchanged post-development, the peak and volume rate of run-off requirements for the surface water run-off credits will be met by default… In this instance a flood risk assessment must be carried out and any opportunities identified to reduce surface water run-off are implemented."
Where the flood resilience credits are not being targeted, a flood risk assessment is not required. Instead, a separate study identifying opportunities to reduce surface water run-off may be carried out, and the measures implemented.
Where there is no change in impermeable area, opportunities should be identified to reduce run-off. It is not necessary to carry out a flood risk assessment to fulfill the intent of this criteria.
Surface water run-off not flooding property - KBCN0565
Where parts of a site may flood in the event of local drainage system failure, it is still possible to demonstrate compliance if the building itself will not be at risk of flooding.
Sustainability Champion role – Construction - KBCN0446
The intent of the Sustainability Champion role is to monitor and report on the project’s progress towards the relevant BREEAM target(s), over the course of the stated RIBA stages, in order to minimise the risks of possible non-compliance with the agreed BREEAM targets. To do this the Sustainability Champion should:
- Ideally be site-based, or visit the site regularly and be authorised to carry out inspection and monitoring of the works relevant to their role
- Monitor site activities with an appropriate level of frequency
- Report regularly to the principal contractor and attend relevant project team meetings, identifying potential areas of non-compliance and recommending actions to mitigate these.
03.11.2020 Issue 2.0 of the UK RFO technical manual updated with the above text. It remains applicable to previous issues of the manual.
Temporary Car Parking - KBCN0751
The number of car parking spaces should be based on the permanent parking spaces provided specifically for the development once fully operational.
Assessors should determine whether parking spaces should be considered 'permanent' or 'temporary', based on evidence provided by the design team.
Temporary ecological enhancements prior to development - KBCN00065
Where a site has been acquired but development is not scheduled to start immediately, it is possible to determine the baseline ecological value of the site at this point. Furthermore, to recognise where positive measures to enhance ecology have been taken to manage the site until development starts, these enhancement measures will not impact on the baseline value for the purposes of the BREEAM assessment, provided that the following have been met:
Clarification: This guidance is currently under development. Please contact BRE Global with specific project details for confirmation of whether this approach may be used.
The aim of these issues is to demonstrate the impact that a project has had on the site ecology, but comparing the site pre and post development. BREEAM does not want to penalise sites that have put in temporary ecological enhancements that enhance the ecology while waiting for development to begin.
- Following acquisition of the site and prior to any site clearance which involves the removal of any relevant features, the ecological value of a site is recorded in accordance with the relevant BREEAM methodology by a suitably qualified ecologist (SQE) to establish the baseline.
- The SQE confirms and records details of the temporary ecological enhancement and management strategy being implemented on the site for the period prior to scheduled development.
- For a period of up to 10 years, the initial baseline determined for the site is valid for the purposes of BREEAM assessment.
- Any enhancements prior to scheduled development that are not being carried forward into the design, construction and operational phases can be disregarded for the purposes of establishing the baseline ecological value at development.
- The assessment report shall provide documentary evidence of the above for certification.
- Any enhancement and management practices implemented prior to scheduled development that will be maintained and continued through the design, construction and into the operational phase can contribute toward the awarding of credits via the BREEAM calculator tools.
Temporary irrigation systems - KBCN0147
Temporary watering arrangements set up purely to allow plant species or a green roof to establish are acceptable for plants relying on natural precipitation during all seasons of the year. Where this is the case, the ecologist's report must confirm the plant species and the expected time for recommended plant species to establish themselves i.e. time period for temporary watering arrangements.
Temporary power solutions in noise impact assessments - KBCN0171
Plants such as standby generators that are only used temporarily are excluded from the noise impact assessment.
The importance of EPDs - KBCN0895
The publishing of a third party verified EPD by a manufacturer indicates a transparent, robust and credible step in the pursuit and achievement of real sustainability in practice. While an EPD in itself is not proof that a product is sustainable, it is a public declaration of the environmental impacts associated with specified life cycle stages of that product. A manufacturer or group of manufacturers, who carry out life cycle assessment (LCA) studies on their product(s) and publish the results in verified EPDs, help to create a knowledge base and an awareness of the environmental impacts quantified using standardised metrics. This allows benchmarking and the identification of improvement opportunities for the product’s environmental credentials. By implication, there are also opportunities for economic and social benefits to the manufacturer, such as the reduction in resource wastage through improvements in product design and manufacturing efficiency.
The reward for EPDs in BREEAM schemes promotes the above, while encouraging designers, procurers and other stakeholders to make decisions on the basis of robust and credible environmental data. This is one of the markers of BRE’s strategic approach to the selection and procurement of construction materials and products.
We recognise that there may be steep costs at the moment to small manufacturers wishing to publish verified EPDs for their products. This is a result of the maturity of the market and it is anticipated that as the awareness of the benefits of EPD increases, the increased uptake of EPDs will drive costs down.
Thermal comfort – Changing rooms - KBCN1133
Whilst thermal comfort in changing rooms may be considered as significant, such spaces are, generally, outside the scope of this Issue, as they would not fall within the definition of an 'occupied space'.
17/06/2019 - This supersedes the advice previously provided in this KBCN, which was published in error on 13/06/2018
Thermal modelling for large scale projects - KBCN1171
In cases where the scale of the project makes it unfeasible to provide thermal modelling for every space, it is acceptable to demonstrate compliance with a representative sample of floors or rooms, ensuring any worst case scenarios are included.
Thermal modelling for shell only developments - KBCN0784
For shell only developments, in order to achieve criterion 1, thermal modelling can be completed on the basis of a typical notional layout and equipment specification for the particular building type (retail, restaurants, cinema etc.) can be used to demonstrate compliance.
Timing of Ecological survey/report - KBCN0292
If the ecologist's site survey and/or report is completed at a later stage than required, the assessor would need to be satisfied that it was produced early enough for the recommendations to influence the Concept Design/design brief stage and leads to a positive outcome in terms of protection and enhancement of site ecology.
21/02/2017 Wording clarified.
Towel rails - KBCN00081
Towel rails cannot count towards the drying line requirements.
Clothes drying lines are provided to reduce the need to tumble drying clothes, which uses a lot of energy. Using towel rails to dry clothes would require the potentially damp towels to be stored while the clothes dry. This is inconvenient and therefore means the aim of the credit is less likely to be met.
Tram services - KBCN000004
Tram services are classified as train services when assessing transport accessibility.
Transport of construction materials – Data and methodology - KBCN0413
To ensure comparability across assessments, the information completed in the scoring and reporting tool should be restricted to the minimum data specified in the technical manual.
For the purposes of this BREEAM Issue, the distances reported should be calculated from the point from which the products or materials were sourced, whether this be directly from a manufacturer or from a builders' merchant/distributor:
- For products or materials purchased directly from a manufacturer or quarry, for example, the distance should be calculated from the ‘factory gate’, including any intermediate transport.
- For products or materials, which are purchased from a merchant or distributor, only the distance from their depot should be reported.
Where products cannot be sourced locally, for example on small islands, the transport required to import the materials or products can be discounted, and only the local onward transport to the site recorded.
The aim of this requirement is to encourage developers to consider the impacts of transporting products and materials to site. As such, the criteria seek to address only those impacts, which can be influenced by the developer.
27.07.2018 Wording amended to add clarity.
Transportation analysis carried out by the lift manufacturer - KBCN0232
BREEAM recognises that lift manufacturers / suppliers are often engaged to provide such specialist advice. Where the assessor is satisfied that the analysis has been carried out correctly, the analysis can be submitted as compliant evidence.
Unexploded ordnance - KBCN0775
Unexploded ordnance can be defined as a contaminant as they are objects which can be classed as a hazard to health and/or the environment. Therefore, if the contaminated land specialist confirms that leaving the ordinance on the site would lead to a serious risk to human health and the environment, the site can be defined as “contaminated land” (please see the definition within the 'additional information' section of the manual).
However, the credit can only be awarded where all criteria have been met, and therefore the site investigation, risk assessment and appraisal must determine that the site is “significantly contaminated” i.e. without remediation, development of the site is not possible.
Also, it should be noted that decontamination needs to occur specifically for the purpose of re-development of the site, as detailed in the compliance notes “Prior Decontamination” and “Health and Safety related decontamination.”
Urinals – calculation of litres/bowl/hour - KBCN1010
A flushing frequency of two flushes per hour is used in the Wat 01 tool and should be applied when calculating the volume of water dispensed by urinals and compared against the water efficient consumption levels by component type for the Wat 01 issue. This method should be applied to calculate litres/bowl/hour.
For example, a 13.5 L cistern feeding 3 bowls which is flushed 2 times per hour: (13.5 L / 3 bowls) x 2 times an hour = 9 litres/bowl/h.
Users with special hearing and communication needs - KBCN0969
Criterion 1c aims to ensure that the acoustician has considered designing the building to better meet the acoustic requirements for users with special hearing and communication needs.
The extent and scope this should cover will depend on the building type. The following information, taken from The UK Department for Education ‘Acoustic design of schools: performance standards building bulletin 93' (February 2015) provides clarity as to the type of users typically to be considered:
Users with special hearing or communication needs includes, but are not limited to, people with permanent hearing impairment or with severe or complex needs, including:
- speech, language and communication difficulties
- visual impairments
- fluctuating hearing impairments caused by conductive hearing loss
- attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
- an auditory processing disorder or difficulty
- being on the autistic spectrum
Such users should be considered by the suitably qualified acoustician, along with the other points a-d when giving early design advice regarding room layout, sound insulation and reverberation times etc.
01/03/2019: Amended to clarify that this is a 'typical' list of users, but does not impose a new requirement.
Using borehole water to offset water consumption - KBCN00094
Borehole water is included within our definition of "potable water" and cannot therefore be used to offset water consumption in the same way as rain or grey water harvesting.
A significant amount of water used for public consumption is already drawn from aquifers and often private boreholes draw from the same aquifer that water companies use.
Using BRE SMARTWaste tool - KBCN0236
BRE SMARTWaste may be helpful in demonstrating the construction waste benchmarks; however its use is not compulsory to achieve the credits.
Reference to the SMARTWaste tool has been included in the issue as an example of a tool that can be used to manage and monitor waste generated during construction.
Vehicle (re)charging stations/points - KBCN0934
For BREEAM purposes, a vehicle charging station is a facility that is dedicated to charging vehicles. Provision of a mains-powered electrical socket will not be deemed compliant.
Ventilation – E-cigarettes - KBCN1014
The use of e-cigarettes and vaporizers is considered equivalent to smoking. A smoking ban must also include a ban on e-cigarettes and vaporizers.
Ventilation – Withdrawal of EN 13779:2007 - KBCN1054
Standard EN 13779:2007 has been withdrawn (01/02/2018) and in its place the following should be used:
- To replace EN 13779:2007 Annex A2 for location of the building's air intakes and exhausts - CEN/TR 16798-4:2017 Sections 8.8.1 to 8.8.4
- To replace EN 13779:2007 Annex A3 for filtration in HVAC systems - EN 16798-3:2017 Section B.4.2
- To replace EN 13779:2007 for providing fresh air into the building - ISO 17772-1:2017 Annex I or EN 16798-1:2019 Annex B.3 (using either Category I or Category II default design values)
Both standards provide three methods for selecting design ventilation rates:
- Method 1: Method based on perceived air quality
- Method 2: Method using limit values of substance concentration
- Method 3: Method based on predefined ventilation flow rates
(only applicable to the BREEAM International New Construction scheme): Both standards provide different options for selecting design ventilation rates:
It is the design team’s responsibility to determine and apply the most appropriate method or option(s) for the project undergoing assessment.
- Total air change rate for the dwelling
- Extract air flows for specific rooms
- Supply air flows for specific rooms
- Design opening areas for natural ventilation
Existing projects can continue to use EN 13779:2007 where applicable. Any new assessment registrations should use the replacements above.
2019.09.01 - KBCN updated to reference new standard
2020.01.10 - KBCN updated to clarify methods for complying with new standards
2010.05.03 - Typo corrected to clarify that 'EN 16798-1:2019 Annex B.3 'either Category I OR Category II default design values' are to be used
View out – applicable areas - KBCN0268
The aim of the View out credit is to allow occupants to refocus their eyes from close work.
The view out criteria are not applicable to occupied areas such as meeting rooms, where typically close work is not undertaken and there are no permanent workstations.
Where rooms contain areas of different functions, only those areas that are applicable should be included in the assessment. In this case a notional line can be drawn on the plans and calculations made based on these applicable areas only.
View out – eye level - KBCN0581
BREEAM defines an adequate view out as being at seated eye level (1.2 – 1.3m) within the relevant building areas. However, where occupants will not have the option to be seated, for example in some industrial operational areas where the work being undertaken requires occupants to remain standing, the height of the view out can be changed accordingly to suit the eye level of occupants. All other view out requirements have to be met and clear justification provided for changing the height/level of the view out.
In some relevant building areas, occupants may not be sitting down to undertake tasks. Allowing the view out height requirements to be changed accordingly ensures building occupants gain maximum benefit from the view out.
View out – no relevant areas - KBCN0876
If the scope of the assessment does not include any relevant building areas, as defined within the manual, the criteria for 'view out' can be considered as met by default.
Only spaces that fall within the definition of relevant areas and are within the assessment's scope need to be assessed.
View out – percentage area - KBCN0166
For the view out credit, compliance must be demonstrated for the percentage of the floor area in each relevant building area, rather than the percentage of the total relevant building area in the building.
14/2/17 Wording amended to clarify that the percentage must be achieved for each 'relevant building area'.
View out – rooms used for security or other critical functions - KBCN1040
The View out criteria are not applicable to rooms containing security or critical systems or sensitive material, such as CCTV monitoring rooms.
Where it can be demonstrated that the presence of compliant windows would compromise a critical function of the space, the criteria can be considered not applicable.
Visitor car parking spaces for Other Buildings (Transport type 2) - KBCN0242
For developments such as hotels and visitor centres, which have a relatively small number of staff and large visitor numbers, the guest/visitor car parking spaces do not need to be assessed for this Issue where these are separate from the staff parking spaces. However, if the staff and visitor’s spaces are combined (and not clearly segregated) then all spaces must be accounted for within the calculation for maximum car parking capacity.
The aim of this Issue, 'To encourage the use of alternative means of transport...' is intended to apply to those commuting to the building on a regular basis.
21 06 2017 Wording amended to clarify the type of building and building-user covered by this KBCN.
VOCs post-completion testing and KPI - KBCN0380
When testing for VOCs post-completion and pre-occupancy, a representative sample of the building needs to be carried out. Each sample TVOC and formaldehyde measurement needs to achieve the threshold levels individually, either in the initial testing or after remedial measures have been implemented. This ensures that all tested areas of the building are below the limits, and that areas of non-compliance are not ‘averaged out’.
'When providing KPI test results for air quality post-construction / pre-occupancy within scoring and reporting tool, where the limits are exceeded and remediation and re-testing are carried out, the figure should be an average for the whole building post-remediation, as this is the key figure that reflects the building at its certified state'.
Where testing is not a requirement of the IAQ Plan and this is not carried out, the original testing figures should be entered and the assessment report should provide details of the remediation measures undertaken to reduce these to within the prescribed limits.
06/12/17 Amended to account for situations where re-testing is not required by the IAQ Plan.
Washer dryers - KBCN0699
Where a washer dryer is specified, the water consumption figure for the wash and dry cycle should be used. The drying cycle of a washer dryer is taken into account because it usually uses water during this drying process (e.g. for cooling during the drying cycle) and in some cases, this water usage can be significant.
Waste storage provision for catering - KBCN0755
As the manual states, the additional 2m2 per 1000 m2 of waste storage area provided for catering is measured against the "net floor area where catering is provided" and NOT the floor area of the catering facility.
Generally, a catering facility will serve building users throughout the building. If it can be demonstrated that this is not the case, for example if part of the development is subject to a separate tenancy, not served by the catering facility, the area calculation can be adjusted accordingly.
Where the net floor area is not indicative of the actual occupancy, the default values may not be appropriate. In such cases, the predicted waste streams should be calculated based on the actual occupancy and waste streams generated.
This requirement accounts for the increase in waste produced by building based on the likely number of building users served by the catering facility. Please note that these default calculations are only intended for use where it is not possible to determine accurately what provision should be made based on predicted waste streams.
15 06 2017 Wording updated to clarify
Water consumption calculation for push and automatic shut-off taps - KBCN00052
The water consumption of push and automatic shut-off taps can be calculated for input into the Wat 01 calculator using the following steps:
Step 1: Calculate the water consumption per person per use.
If a tap runs for less than 20 seconds per activation, assume it will be activated twice per person for the timed duration. For example, for a tap with a flow rate of 9 litres/min and a 15 second usage duration, the water consumed per person would be: 9 x 15/60 x 2 = 4.5 litres/min.
If a tap runs for 20 seconds or more per activation, assume one activation per person for the timed duration. For example, for a tap with a flow rate of 9 litres/min and a 20 second usage duration, the water consumed per person would be: 9 x 20/60 x 1 = 3 litres/min.
Step 2: Multiply the water consumption figure per person by 1.5 and enter this figure into the calculator tool.
Multiplying by 1.5 adjusts the consumption figure to compensate for the typical non times tap use of 40 seconds that has already been taken into account in the tool. Taking the first example above, if we multiply 4.5 litres/min by 1.5 we get 6.75 litres/min. When this is used in the tool as the flow rate specification, the consumption is 4.57 litres/person/day which more closely reflects the true level of water consumption for the push tap.
Water consumption calculation for sensor taps - KBCN0180
The water flow rate of sensor taps can be entered directly into the flow rate cells of the Wat 01 tool.
The amount of water dispensed by sensor taps for each use is determined by occupant demand in the same way as normal taps. Therefore, the default frequency of use will be applied in the Wat 01 tool and no adjustment calculation is needed for sensor taps.
Water fittings specification evidence at design stage - KBCN0420
For a design stage assessment, it is acceptable to provide data based on reasonable assumptions if the final specification of fittings is not yet available.
Water fittings used for a process related function - KBCN0418
Water fittings used for a process related function, e.g. low level ablution taps, laboratory / classroom taps, scrub-up taps, cleaners' sinks etc., should be excluded from the assessment of regulated water consumption.
Only kitchen taps and those used for general hygiene washing are to be included in the assessment of regulated water consumption.
04/08/17 Added low level ablution taps (typically used for religious purposes) to exemptions.
Water monitoring when only part of a building is under assessment - KBCN0548
When only part of the building is under assessment, there are two cases for achieving compliance with the requirement to specify a water meter on the mains water supply of the building:
If the whole building is under the same tenancy or ownership and management, then a meter monitoring the entire building is acceptable.
However, if the floors subject to assessment are separately tenanted, then a meter at the point of entry to the assessed areas is required.
Assessed areas have to be monitored separately for water consumption when only part of the building falls within the scope of assessment and where the assessed areas are separately tenanted.
Watercourse pollution from indoor parking - KBCN0545
If the design team can demonstrate that there will be absolutely no run-off from the indoor parking then the intent of the credit will be met. However, such proof would also have to demonstrate that no hydrocarbon spillage from vehicles found its way into the watercourse/sewer. It is likely that there would be water ingress from outside or that internal parking areas would have drains fitted and be cleaned regularly. In such conditions, the criteria are still applicable.
The intent of this criteria is to ensure no hydrocarbons run off to any watercourse.
Zoning and control – dimming - KBCN1018
Localised dimming controls installed in line with the criteria, along with a master on/off switch, can be considered as meeting the aim of the requirement for 'controls' in open plan offices.
The aim is for occupants to have local control over their lighting and maintain comfortable lighting levels.
Zoning and control – PIR in circulation spaces - KBCN0332
PIR controls can be deemed compliant in circulation spaces such as corridors. In this instance 'separate occupant controls' are not required.
The requirement for user control is so that the building users can have direct control over their immediate work environment to ensure it is suitable for their personal needs. In circulation spaces, occupancy is transient and PIR control in these spaces is acceptable.
Zoning and occupant control – access to lighting controls - KBCN00032
In building areas where building users, for example the general public, are not expected to have access to lighting controls, these areas can be excluded from the assessment.
The aim of these criteria is to increase user control of lighting. Where user control is not applicable, such as on a shop floor, the criteria should not be applied.
Information correct as of 24thSeptember 2021. Please see kb.breeam.com for the latest compliance information.
Zoning and occupant control – PIR detection systems - KBCN0335
The aim of the Health & Wellbeing category is to recognise ways to benefit occupants through giving them control of their lighting environment. Without manual overrides, presence or absence detection lighting controls (such as PIR detection systems) are not compliant with the criteria.
BREEAM recognises the energy efficiency benefits of detection systems in buildings through the Energy category. In some cases, the design team may have to prioritise one particular lighting strategy to the detriment of achieving a credit elsewhere.
28 04 2021 Wording amended to include absence detection systems.
18 09 2017 Wording amended to clarify the meaning.